Investigations of Physical Processes in Solar Flare Plasma on the Basis of RESIK Spectrometer Observations

  • Z. Kordylewski
  • J. SylwesterEmail author
  • B. Sylwester
  • A. Kȩpa
  • M. Kowaliński
  • W. Trzebiński
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 400)


Simultaneous registration of spectra of quickly varying sources may be obtained through the use of curved fixed crystals instead of the scanning flat crystals spectrometer. Illuminating such a curved crystal with parallel X-ray beam allows to obtain, after the reflection, the whole spectrum covering certain wavelengths range, as the incidence angle at curved crystal surface represents a monotonous function of incidence point position measured along the crystal. The RESIK bent crystal spectrometer was developed in Poland with the help from experts of Naval Research Laboratory (USA), Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK), and Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL, UK). The development work was also supported by scientists of Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Waves Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Unique RESIK spectra and the results obtained are presented and discussed.


Emission Measure Line Flux Differential Emission Measure Cool Plasma First Ionization Potential 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The works with RESIK spectrometer have been carried out with the support of Polish Scientific Research Fund (project 2.P03C.005.08 for technical design; project 1.P03D.017.29 and 2011/01/B/ST9/05861 for data processing).


  1. 1.
    Asplund, M., Grevesse, N., Sauval, A.J., Scott, P.: The chemical composition of the Sun. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 47, 481–522 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Culhane, J.L., Hiei, E., Doschek, G.A., Cruise, A.M., Ogawara, Y., Uchida, Y., Bentley, R.D., Brown, C.M., Lang, J., Watanabe, T., Bowles, J.A., Deslattes, R.D., Feldman, U., Fludra, A., Guttridge, P., Henins, A., Lapington, J., Magraw, J., Mariska, J.T., Payne, J., Phillips, K.J.H., Sheather, P., Slater, K., Tanaka, K., Towndraw, E., Trow, M.W., Yamaguchi, A.: The Bragg crystal spectrometer for solar-A. Sol. Phys. 136, 89 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dere, K.P., Landi, E., Mason, H.E., Monsignori Fossi, B.C., Young, P.R.: CHIANTI—an atomic database for emission lines. Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 125, 149–173 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Feldman, U., Laming, J.M.: Element abundances in the upper atmospheres of the sun and stars: update of observational results. Phys. Scr. 61, 222–252 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jakimiec, J., Sylwester, B., Sylwester, J., Serio, S., Peres, G., Reale, F.: Dynamics of flaring loops II. Flare evolution in the density–temperature diagram. Astron. Astrophys. 253, 269–276 (1992)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kepa, A., Sylwester, J., Sylwester, B., Siarkowski, M., Pillips, K.J.H., Kuznetsov, V.D.: Observations of 1s2-1s(np) and 1s-np lines in RESIK soft X-ray spectra. Adv. Space Res. 38(7), 1538–1542 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kepa, A., Sylwester, J., Sylwester, B., et al.: Sol. Syst. Res. 40(4), 294–301 (2006). doi:10.1134/S0038094606040058ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mazzotta, P., Mazzitelli, G., Colafrancesco, S., Vittorio, N.: Ionization balance for optically thin plasmas: rate coefficients for all atoms and ions of the elements H to NI. Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 133, 403–409 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Phillips, K.J.H., Sylwester, J., Sylwester, B., Landi, E.: Solar flare abundances of potassium, argon and sulphur. Astrophys. J. 589, 113–116 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Phillips, K.J.H., Dubau, J., Sylwester, B., Sylwester, J., Culhane, J.L., Doschek, G.A., Lang, J.: Temperature-sensitive line ratios diagnostics of the corona based on satellite-to-resonance line ratios of 1s2-1s(np) transitions. Adv. Space Res. 38(7), 1543–1546 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Serio, S., Reale, F., Jakimiec, J., Sylwester, B., Sylwester, J.: Dynamics of flaring loops I. Thermodynamic decay scaling laws. Astron. Astrophys. 241, 197–202 (1991)ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Siarkowski, M., Sylwester, J.: The analysis of MG XI ion X-ray spectra obtained from Vertical 9 rocket experiment. Artif. Satellites Space Phys. 20, 63–70 (1985)ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sylwester, J.: Experience of Wrocław team in construction of solar X-ray instruments. ESA SP 493, 377–382 (2001)ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sylwester, J., Farnik, F.: DIOGENESS Soft X-ray spectrometer–photometer for studies of flare energy balance. Astron. Inst. Czech. 41(3), 149–157 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sylwester, J., Schrijver, J., Mewe, R.: Multitemperature analysis of solar X-ray line emission. Sol. Phys. 67, 285–309 (1980)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sylwester, J., Lemen, J.R., Mewe, R.: Variation in observed coronal calcium abundance of X-ray flare plasmas. Nature 310, 665–666 (1984)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sylwester, B., Sylwester, J., Serio, S., Reale, F., Bentley, R.D., Fludra, A.: Dynamics of flaring loops III. Interpretation of flare evolution in the emission measure-temperature diagram. Astron. Astrophys. 267, 586–594 (1993)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sylwester, J., Garcia, H.A., Sylwester, B.: Quantitative interpretation of GOES soft X-ray measurements. Astron. Astrophys. 293, 577–585 (1995)ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sylwester, J., Lemen, J.R., Bentley, R.D., Fludra, A., Zolcinski, M.C.: Detailed evidence for flare-to-flare variations of the coronal calcium abundance. Astrophys. J. 501, 397–407 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sylwester, B., Sylwester, J., Siarkowski, M., Phillips, K.J.H., Landi, E.: Detection of H- and He-like resonance lines of chlorine in solar flare spectra. Proc. Int. Astronomical Union 2004(223), 671–674 (2004). Copyright © International Astronomical Union. doi:
  21. 21.
    Sylwester, J., Gaicki, I., Kordylewski, Z., Kowalinski, M., Nowak, S., Plocieniak, S., Siarkowski, M., Sylwester, B., Trzebinski, W., Bakala, J., Culhane, J.L., Whyndham, M., Bentley, R.D., Guttridge, P.R., Phillips, K.J.H., Lang, J., Brown, C.M., Doschek, G.A., Kuznetsov, V.D., Oraevsky, V.N., Stepanov, A.I., Lisin, D.V.: RESIK: a bent crystal X-ray spectrometer for studies of solar coronal plasma composition. Sol. Phys. 226(1), 45–72 (2005). doi:10.1007/s11207-005-6392-5ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sylwester, B., Sylwester, J., Kepa, A., et al.: Sol. Syst. Res. 40(2), 125-132 (2006). doi:10.1134/S0038094606020067ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sylwester, J., Sylwester, B., Phillips, K.J.H., Kuznetsov, V.D.: Highly ionized potassium lines in solar X-ray spectra and the abundance of potassium. Astrophys. J. 710, 804–809 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sylwester, J., Sylwester, B., Phillips, K.J.H., Kuznetsov, V.D.: The solar flare sulphur abundance from RESIK observations. Astrophys. J. 751, 103–109 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Z. Kordylewski
    • 1
  • J. Sylwester
    • 1
    Email author
  • B. Sylwester
    • 1
  • A. Kȩpa
    • 1
  • M. Kowaliński
    • 1
  • W. Trzebiński
    • 1
  1. 1.Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences (SRC PAS)WrocławPoland

Personalised recommendations