Advertisement

Growth and Spectroscopy of Semiconductor Quantum Rings

  • Wen LeiEmail author
  • Axel Lorke
Chapter
Part of the NanoScience and Technology book series (NANO)

Abstract

Quantum rings are unique nanostructures as they are topologically not simply connected and therefore different from most other low-dimensional systems such as quantum dots, quantum wires or quantum wells. This topology gives rise to an intriguing energy structure, in particular, when a magnetic field is applied such that a flux can penetrate through the ring’s interior. Flux quantization will lead to a ground state, which has a non-vanishing angular momentum, and the intraband transitions are affected by the corresponding change in dipole-allowed transitions. Quantum rings, which are of the order of 10 nm in size are of particular interest, because they make it possible to study these systems in the true quantum limit.

In this chapter, we will review the growth techniques, which lead to the self-organized formation of quantum rings of a few tens of nanometers in diameter. The mechanisms will be discussed, which ‘invert’ the geometry of InAs islands, grown in the Stranski-Krastanov mode on GaAs, when they are partially capped with GaAs. When the thus formed nanorings are embedded in a suitable heterostructure, they can be electrically tuned and carriers can be injected with single-electron/single-hole precision. We will discuss, how the number of carriers and the strength of the applied field influence the single-particle and many-particle ground states, which can be probed by capacitance-voltage measurements. Also, far-infrared absorption spectra will be presented, which show the influence of flux quantization on the intraband transitions. These spectroscopic techniques, together with photoluminescence data obtained on single rings as well as on ring ensembles, make it possible to obtain an in-depth view into the detailed energetic structure of nanoscopic rings.

Keywords

Interband Transition Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition Wetting Layer Back Contact Quantum Ring 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgement

This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung and the Australian Research Council.

References

  1. 1.
    D. Bimberg, M. Grundmann, N.N. Ledentsov, Quantum Dot Heterostructures (Wiley, New York, 1998) and references therein Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P.M. Petroff, A. Lorke, A. Imamoglu, Phys. Today 54, 46 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. Wang, A. Rastelli, S. Kiravittaya, M. Benyoucef, O.G. Schmidt, Adv. Mater. 21, 2601 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. Songmuang, S. Kiravittaya, O.G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2892 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    I.N. Stranski, L. Krastanow, Akad. Wiss. Wien 146, 797 (1938) Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Z.M. Wang (ed.), Quantum Dot Devices. Lecture Notes in Nanoscale Science and Technology, vol. 13 (Springer, Berlin, 2012) Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Büttiker, Y. Imry, R. Landauer, Phys. Lett. A 96, 365 (1983) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. Wu, Z.M. Wang, K. Holmes, E. Marega Jr., Z. Zhou, H. Li, Y.I. Mazur, G.J. Salamo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 203117 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.M. Garcia, G. Medeiros-Ribeiro, K. Schmit, T. Ngo, J.L. Feng, A. Lorke, J.P. Kotthaus, P.M. Petroff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2014 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    D. Granados, J.M. García, T. Ben, S.I. Molina, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071918 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    T. Mano, T. Kuroda, K. Kuroda, K. Sakoda, J. Nanophotonics 3, 031605 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. Pettersson, R.J. Warburton, A. Lorke, K. Karrai, J.P. Kotthaus, J.M. Garcia, P.M. Petroff, Physica E 6, 510 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    R.J. Warburton, C. Schäflein, D. Haft, F. Bickel, A. Lorke, K. Karrai, J.M. Garcia, W. Schoenfeld, P.M. Petroff, Nature 405, 926 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    W. Lei, C. Notthoff, A. Lorke, D. Reuter, A.D. Wieck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 033111 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    T.C. Lin, C.H. Lin, H.S. Ling, Y.J. Fu, W.H. Chang, S.D. Lin, C.P. Lee, Phys. Rev. B 80, 081304R (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    C.H. Lin, H.S. Lin, C.C. Huang, S.K. Su, S.D. Lin, K.W. Sun, C.P. Lee, Y.K. Liu, M.D. Yang, J.L. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 183101 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Lorke, R.J. Luyken, A.O. Govorov, J.P. Kotthaus, J.M. Garcia, P.M. Petroff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2223 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. Lorke, J.M. Garcia, R. Blossey, R.J. Luyken, P.M. Petroff, Adv. Solid State Phys. 43, 125 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. Lorke, R.J. Luyken, J.M. Garcia, P.M. Petroff, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1857 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. Lorke, R. Blossey, J.M. Garcia, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 88, 225 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    H. Eisele, A. Lenz, R. Heitz, R. Timm, M. Dähne, Y. Temko, T. Suzuki, K. Jacobi, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 124301 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    W. Lei, H.H. Tan, C. Jagadish, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 013108 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    W. Lei, J. Nanopart. Res. 13, 1647 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    H.S. Ling, C.P. Lee, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 024314 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    R. Magri, S. Heun, G. Biasiol, A. Locatelli, T.O. Mentes, L. Sorba, in Physics of Semiconductors: 29th International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors. AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 1199 (2010), p. 3 Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    C. Zhao, Y.H. Chen, C.X. Cui, B. Xu, J. Sun, W. Lei, L.K. Lu, Z.G. Wang, J. Chem. Phys. 123, 094708 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    N. Sritirawisarn, F.W.M. van Otten, R. Nötzel, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 245, 012004 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Q. Xie, A. Madhukar, P. Chen, N.P. Kobayashi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2542 (1995) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    W. Lei, Y.H. Chen, P. Jin, X.L. Ye, Y.L. Wang, B. Xu, Z.G. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 063114 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    G. Springholz, M. Pinczolits, V. Holy, S. Zerlauth, I. Vavra, G. Bauer, Physica E 9, 149 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. Tersoff, C. Teichert, M.G. Lagally, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1675 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    H.X. Li, T. Daniels-Race, M.A. Hasan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1367 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    T. Raz, D. Ritter, G. Bahir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1706 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    I. Kegel, T.H. Metzger, A. Lorke, J. Peisl, J. Stangl, G. Bauer, J.M. García, P.M. Petroff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1694 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    V. Bressler-Hill et al., Phys. Rev. B 50, 8479 (1994) and references therein ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    S. Herminghaus, K. Jacobs, K. Mecke, J. Bischof, A. Fery, M. Ibn-Elhaj, S. Schlagowski, Science 282, 5390 (1998) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    R. Blossey, A. Lorke, Phys. Rev. E 65, 021603 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    J.M. Ulloa, P. Offermans, P.M. Koenraad, in Handbook of Self Assembled Semiconductor Nanostructures for Novel Devices in Photonics and Electronics, ed. by M. Henini (Elsevier, Oxford, 2008), pp. 165–200 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    T. Mano, T. Kuroda, S. Sanguinetti, T. Ochiai, T. Tateno, J. Kim, T. Noda, M. Kawabe, K. Sakoda, G. Kido, N. Koguchi, Nano Lett. 5, 425 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    T. Mano, N. Koguchi, J. Cryst. Growth 278, 108 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    K. Watanabe, N. Koguchi, Y. Gotoh, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L79 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    M. Yamagiwa, T. Mano, T. Kuroda, T. Takeno, K. Sakoda, G. Kido, N. Koguchi, F. Minami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 113115 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    R.J. Warburton, B.T. Miller, C.S. Dürr, C. Bödefeld, K. Karrai, J.P. Kotthaus, G. Medeiros-Ribeiro, P.M. Petroff, S. Huant, Phys. Rev. B 58, 16221 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    R.J. Warburton, C. Schäflein, D. Haft, F. Bickel, A. Lorke, K. Karrai, J.M. Garcia, W. Schoenfeld, P.M. Petroff, Physica E 9, 124 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    A. Wojs, P. Hawrylak, Phys. Rev. B 55, 13066 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    A.O. Govorov, S.E. Ulloa, K. Karrai, R.J. Warburton, Phys. Rev. B 66, 081309 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    J.A. Barker, R.J. Warburton, E.P. O’Reilly, Phys. Rev. B 69, 035327 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    A.G. Aronov, Yu.V. Sharvin, Rev. Mod. Phys. 59, 755 (1987) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    T. Chakraborty, P. Pietiläinen, Phys. Rev. B 50, 8460 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    L. Wendler, V.M. Fomin, Phys. Status Solidi (b) 191, 409 (1995) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    A. Lorke, R.J. Luyken, Physica B 256–258, 424 (1998) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    B.T. Miller, W. Hansen, S. Manus, R.J. Luyken, A. Lorke, J.P. Kotthaus, S. Huant, G. Medeiros-Ribeiro, P.M. Petroff, Phys. Rev. B 56, 6764 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    H. Drexler, D. Leonard, W. Hansen, J.P. Kotthaus, P.M. Petroff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2252 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    M. Fricke, A. Lorke, J.P. Kotthaus, G. Medeiros-Ribeiro, P.M. Petroff, Europhys. Lett. 36, 197 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    V. Halonen, P. Pietiläinen, T. Chakraborty, Europhys. Lett. 33, 377 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer EngineeringThe University of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia
  2. 2.Faculty of Physics and CENIDEUniversität Duisburg-EssenDuisburgGermany

Personalised recommendations