Human error such as distraction and inattention while driving is one of the major causes of the rear-end collisions. In order to help reduce those accidents, a pre-collision system (PCS) has been developed and spread. A PCS basically consists of the warning, the brake-assist, and the autonomous brake functions. The total effectiveness of the system depends on not only the autonomous brake performance but also the driver’s reaction to the warning and the braking maneuver. Earlier activation timing can make the system more effective in terms of collision mitigation/avoidance; however, the drivers may feel nuisance if the timing is too early. Thus, human factors issue should be considered in designing and evaluating a PCS. This paper describesthe human-centered design of a PCS from object recognition to the effectiveness estimation method.


Pre-Collision System Perceptual Risk Estimate Safety Impact Methodology 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hirofumi Aoki
    • 1
  • Hiroyuki Takahashi
    • 1
  • Satoshi Udaka
    • 1
  • Toshinori Okita
    • 1
  • Hiroyasu Ichida
    • 1
  • Masami Aga
    • 2
  1. 1.Toyota Motor CorporationJapan
  2. 2.Toyota Motor North AmericaUSA

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