Multiplying Architectural Layouts and 3D Forms: Interplay of Necessity and Contingency in Architectural Modeling

Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 369)


Since 1960s there were many models for architectural layout planning which formulated design activities as problem-solving. On the other hand, various form-finding models had emerged after 1980s. The former seeks the necessity of architectural modeling as an objective science, while the latter encourages the contingent characters of individual modeling. This paper proposes a method of integrating the two families of models. A commutation channel is defined thus every member in one family can work with any member in the other. Therefore the models of architectural layouts can “multiple” the models of 3D forms, which leads to rich variety of architectural structures and forms. The method is implemented and tested in Java.


layout form necessity contingency 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Koopmans, T.C., Beckmann, M.: Assignment problems and the location of economic activities. Econometrica 25(1), 52–76 (1957)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Whitehead, B., MEldars, M.Z.: The planning of single-storey layouts. Building Science 1(2), 105–165 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Seehof, J.M.: Automated facilities layout programs. ACM National Meetting, 191–199 (1966)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mitchell, W.J.: Computer-Aided Architectural Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., NY (1977)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Frazer, J.: An Evolutionary Architecture. John Frazer and Architectural Association, London (1995)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bentley, P.: An Introduction to Evolutionary Design by computers. In: Bentley, P. (ed.) Evolutionary Design by Computers, pp. 1–73. Morgan Kaufmann, California (1999)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hensel, M., Menges, A., Weinstock, M. (eds.): Techniques and Technologies in Morphogenetic Design. AD, vol. 76(2). John Wiley&Sons, Ltd. (2006)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schumacher, P.: Parametricism as Style - Parametricist Manifesto. In: 11th Architecture Biennale, Venice (2008), (January 29, 2013)
  9. 9.
    Vuillemin, J.: Necessity or contingency: the master argument. CSLI publications, US (1996)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hovestadt, L.: Beyond the Grid - Architecture and information technology. Birkhäuser, Germany (2010)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Saad, M., Maher, M.L.: A computational model for synchronous collaborative design. AAAI Technical Report WS-93-07. pp.191- 206 (1993)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Perlin, K.: Improving noise. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 21(3), 681–682 (2002); Proceedings of ACM Siggraph 2002Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hao Hua
    • 1
  1. 1.CAAD/ ITA/D-ARCHETH ZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations