European Court of Asylum—Does It Exist?

  • Lehte RootsEmail author


The chapter assesses the role of the CJEU (Court of Justice of European Union) and the ECrtHR (European Court of Human Rights) in the asylum law development in Europe. Right of asylum is recognized by some EU Member States in their constitutions, but this is not the case in all EU Member States. Author seeks to find answers to several questions on the role of the courts in the development of EU asylum system by looking at the different instruments that one can use. In the analysis, special attention is paid on the Bosphorus ruling done by the ECrtHR as the basis of the protection of fundamental rights and the balance between the two important courts—the ECrtHR and CJEU in Europe. As after the Lisbon Treaty changes the Charter of Fundamental Rights becomes part of the primary legislation of European Union, it is also compared with the existing directives on refugee status, subsidiary protection, and qualification directive.


Member State Asylum Seeker European Convention Geneva Convention Fundamental Freedom 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Books and Articles

  1. Barents R (2009) Directory of European Union case law on the preliminary ruling procedure. Kluwer Law International, Alphen aan den RijinGoogle Scholar
  2. Costello C (2006) The Bosphorus Ruling of the European Court of Human Rights: fundamental rights and blurred boundaries in Europe. Hum Rights Law Rev 6:87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Errera R (2007) The European Court of Human Rights and interim measures: scope of powers and issues for domestic courts. In: Mole N (ed) Asylum and the European Convention on Human Rights. Council of Europe Publishing, StrasbourgGoogle Scholar
  4. Errera R (2011a) Cessation and assessment of new circumstances: a comment on Abdulla, ECJ, 2 March 2010. Int J Refug Law 23:521–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Errera R (2011b) The CJEU and subsidiary protection: reflections on Elgafaji - and after. Int J Refug Law 23:93–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gil-Bazo M-T (2007) Refugee status and subsidiary protection under EC law: the qualification directive and the right to be granted asylum. In: Baldaccini A et al(ed) Whose freedom security and justice? EU immigration and asylum law and policy. Hart Publishing, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  7. Hinarejos A (2009) Judicial control in the European Union. Reforming jurisdiction in the intergovernmental pillars. OUP, Oxford, p 179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jacobs F (2003) Effective judicial protection of individuals in the European Union, now and in the future. In: Andens M, Usher J (eds) The Treaty of Nice enlargement and constitutional reform. Hart Publishing, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  9. Lambert H (2006) The EU asylum qualification directive—its impact on the jurisprudence of the United Kingdom and international law. Int Comp Law Q 55:184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Peers S (2007) The jurisdiction of the Court of Justice over EC immigration and asylum law: time for a change? In: Baldaccini A et al(ed) Whose freedom security and justice? EU immigration and asylum law and policy. Hart Publishing, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  11. Phuong C (2003) Persecution by non-state agents: comparative judicial interpretation of the 1951 refugee convention. Eur J Migr Law 4:521–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Case Law

  1. App. No(s) 13163/87, 13164/87, 13165/87, 13447/87, 13448/87, Vilvarajah and Others v UK, A 215Google Scholar
  2. App. No15576/89 Cruz Varas and Others v Sweden, A201Google Scholar
  3. App No 22414/93 Chahal v UK, Reports 1996-VGoogle Scholar
  4. App No 45036/98 Bosphorus Hava Yollari Turizm Ve Ticaret Anonim Sirketi (Bosphorus Airways) v Ireland [GC], judgement of 30 June 2005, Reports 2005-V, (2006) 42 EHRRGoogle Scholar
  5. App No 40035/98 Jabari v TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  6. App No 51564/99 Conka v BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  7. App No 1948/04 Salah Sheek v The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  8. App No 25389/05 Gebremedhin v FranceGoogle Scholar
  9. App No 40080/07 Fawsie v GreeceGoogle Scholar
  10. App No 40083/07 Saidoun v GreeceGoogle Scholar
  11. App No 12186/08 AA v GreeceGoogle Scholar
  12. App No 8687/08 Rahimi v GreeceGoogle Scholar
  13. App No. 30696/09 MMS v Belgium and GreeceGoogle Scholar
  14. App No. 46827/99 and 46951/99 Mamatkulov and Askarov v TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  15. C-6/64 Costa v EnelGoogle Scholar
  16. C 29/69 Staudr [1969] ECR 419Google Scholar
  17. C 812/79 Attorney General v Burgoa [1980] ECR 2787Google Scholar
  18. C 812/79 Attorney General v Burgoa [1980] ECR 2787Google Scholar
  19. C-122/95Germany v Council of the European Union, E.C.R. I-973Google Scholar
  20. C-393/98 Ministerion Publico and António Gomes Valente [2001] ECR I-1327Google Scholar
  21. C-274/99 P, [2001] ECR I-1611Google Scholar
  22. C-459/03 Commission v IrelandGoogle Scholar
  23. C-402/05 & 415/05 Kadi v Council of the European Union, E.C.R. I-6351Google Scholar
  24. C.465/05, Meki Elgafaji and Noor Elgafaji v Staatsecretaris van Justitie, Grand Chamber, 2009, ECR I-921.Google Scholar
  25. C-133/06, European Parliament v Council of the European Union, 2008 ECR I-3189Google Scholar
  26. C-19/08, Migrationsverket v Petrosian,Google Scholar
  27. C- 31/09 Nawras Bobol v Bevandorlasi es Allampolgarsagi HivatalGoogle Scholar
  28. C-620/10 KastratiGoogle Scholar
  29. C-493/10 ME and othersGoogle Scholar
  30. C-69/10 Samba DioufGoogle Scholar
  31. C-4/11 PuidGoogle Scholar
  32. C-164/11 CIMAD et GISTIGoogle Scholar
  33. C-175/11 HIDGoogle Scholar
  34. C-71/11 Y and C-99/11 on religious persecutionGoogle Scholar
  35. Joined cases C-175/08, C176/08, C178/08 and C-179/98, Aydin Salahadin Abdulla, Kamil Hasan, Ahmed Adem, Hamrin Mosa Rashi and Dler Jamal v Bundesrepublik Deutschland, 2 March 2010.Google Scholar
  36. Joined Cases C-57/09 and C-101/09, Bundesrepublik Deutschland v B and D,Google Scholar
  37. Joined Cases C-411/10 N.S v Secretary of State for the Home Department and (C-493/10) M. E., A. S. M., M. T., K. P., E. H. v Refugee Applications Commissioner, Minister for Justice, Equality and Law ReformGoogle Scholar

Official Materials

  1. Accession of the Community to the European Human Rights Convention, (opinion 2/94), ECR 1996, I-1759Google Scholar
  2. Council Directive 2004/83/EC of 29 April 2004 on minimum standards for the qualification and status of third country nationals or stateless persons as refugees or as persons who otherwise need international protection and the content of the protection granted OJL 30, 30/09/2004 P. 0012 - 0023Google Scholar
  3. Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, adopted 10 December 1984, entered into force 26 June 1987, 1464 UNTS 85.Google Scholar
  4. European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted 1950, entered into force 3 September 1953, 213 UNTS 221 2011, 15.01.2013
  5. Opinion 2/94, Accession by the Communities to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms [1996] ECRI-1759Google Scholar
  6. Protocol relation to the status of Refugees, adopted 31 Jan 1967, entered into force 4 Oct 1967, 606 UNTS 267Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tallinn Law SchoolTallinn University of TechnologyTallinnEstonia

Personalised recommendations