Nucleic Acid Nanotechnology pp 287-303
Nucleic Acid Sequencing and Analysis with Nanopores
It has recently been recognized that solid-state nanopores in single-atomic-layer graphene membranes can be used to electronically detect and characterize single long charged polymer molecules. We have now fabricated nanopores in single-layer graphene that are closely matched to the diameter of a double-stranded DNA molecule. Ionic current signals during electrophoretically driven translocation of DNA through these nanopores were experimentally explored and theoretically modeled. Our experiments show that these nanopores have unusually high sensitivity (0.65 nA/Å) to extremely small changes in the translocating molecule’s outer diameter. Such atomically short graphene nanopores can also resolve nanoscale-spaced molecular structures along the length of a polymer, but they do so with greatest sensitivity only when the pore and molecule diameters are closely matched. Modeling confirms that our most closely matched pores have an inherent resolution of ≤0.6 nm along the length of the molecule.
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