Guttation: Quantification, Microbiology and Implications for Phytopathology

  • Sanjay SinghEmail author
Part of the Progress in Botany book series (BOTANY, volume 75)


Guttation is the process of liquid exudation from hydathodes situated on the tip, along the margins and adaxial and abaxial surfaces of leaves. Hydathodes, also known as water stomata or water pores, unlike stomata, are always open representing the path of least resistance to the liquid outflow from them. Guttation fluids contain a variety of living and non-living ingredients. The living materials include algae, fungi, bacteria, viroids and viruses. The non-living organic constituents include toxins, mycotoxins, alkaloids, proteins, enzymes, sugars, amino acids, volatiles, hormones, vitamins, etc., and the inorganic components include Na, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, B, Co, Zn, Se, Ni, Fl, Si, As, Al, Cl, NH4, NO3, PO4, SO4, CO3, HCO3, etc. This review highlights various techniques for measuring guttation, both qualitative and quantitative, and their use and utility are discussed. Further, the microbiological aspects of guttation, with particular reference to the incidence of algal, fungal, bacterial and viral diseases and toxins produced by these pathogenic organisms, are described. The production of new chemicals by host plant as strategies to protect from harmful effects of pathogens is also outlined. The goal here is to stimulate discussion on our gaps of knowledge in the physiology and biochemistry related to guttation including genetic aspects, and the microbiology associated with guttation. A long-range goal is to design and create improved plant types with increased productivity, and developing effective control measures for plant diseases, to help sustain agriculture in a world with a burgeoning human population. A better understanding of the physiology behind guttation might contribute substantially to this aspiration.


Endophytic Fungus Root Pressure Brome Mosaic Virus Rice Yellow Mottle Virus Guttation Fluid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The author expresses his sincere gratitude to Prof. Ulrich Luettge, Institut fuer Botanik,Technische Universitaet, Darmstadt, Germany, and Editor-in-Chief of ‘Progress in Botany’ for having invited to write this review paper as well as for his fatherly affection during the preparation of the manuscript. The author also extends thanks to Prof. Kym F. Faull, University of California, Los Angeles, USA, for critically reading the manuscript. Dr. Amare Ayalew, Head, School of Plant Sciences, Prof. Chemeda Fininsa, Academic Vice-President, and Dr. Nigussie Dechassa, Research Vice-President of Haramaya University, Ethiopia, also deserve thanks for their sustained cooperation and guidance during the preparation of the manuscript.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture and Environmental SciencesHaramaya UniversityHaramayaEthiopia

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