Selenium and Cancer: A Story that Should not be Forgotten-Insights from Genomics

Conference paper
Part of the Cancer Treatment and Research book series (CTAR, volume 159)


Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient that is incorporated into selenoproteins. Although epidemiological studies suggest that low Se intake is associated with increased risk of various cancers, the results of supplementation trials have been confusing. These conflicting results may be due to different baseline Se status and/or genetic factors. In addition, mechanistic links between Se intake, selenoproteins and carcinogenesis are not clear. In this article, we discuss the functional significance of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in selenoprotein genes and the evidence as to whether or not they influence risk of colorectal, prostate, lung or breast cancers. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that a small number of SNPs in genes encoding glutathione peroxidases 1 and 4, selenoprotein P, selenoprotein S and 15-kDa selenoprotein have functional consequences. Data from case–control studies suggest that a variant at codon 198 in glutathione peroxidase 1 influences the effect of Se status on prostate cancer and risk, and it has also been associated with breast cancer and lung cancer risk, whereas variants in glutathione peroxidase 4, selenoprotein P and selenoprotein S may influence the risk of colorectal cancer. In addition, the results of gene microarray (transcriptomic) studies have identified novel selenoprotein biomarkers of Se status and novel downstream Se-targeted pathways. The work highlights the need to take baseline Se status and genetic factors into account in the design of future intervention trials.


SNP Transcriptomics Selenoproteins Micronutrient Colorectal Cancer Prostate Cancer 



Single-nucleotide polymorphisms


Glutathione peroxidase


Thioredoxin reductase




Selenocysteine insertion sequence




Selenoprotein P


Colorectal cancer


Genome-wide association studies


Mammalian target of rapamycin



CM is supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (grant BB/H011471/1). Work in JEH’s laboratory has been supported by Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Food Standards Agency, Wellcome Trust, European Union, World Cancer Research Fund and Newcastle Healthcare Charity.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences and Human Nutrition Research CentreNewcastle UniversityNewcastle-upon-TyneUK

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