A Multi-channel SSVEP-Based Brain–Computer Interface Using a Canonical Correlation Analysis in the Frequency Domain
Brain–computer interface (BCI) is a new way for man–machine interaction with wide applications, in which steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) is a promising option. However, many characteristics of SSVEP show great user variation. So parameter optimization and channel selection for each subject were applied to improve the performance of BCI. These optimizations limit the practical applicability of the SSVEP-based BCI. The use of a canonical correlation analysis (CCA) method for multi-channel SSVEP in the time domain detection showed highly increased detection accuracy, but it is sensitive to the noise when the stimulate frequency is low. In this paper, a method of CCA in the frequency domain is presented for classifying multi-channel SSVEPs. First overlapping average is conducted on the original training signals. Then fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used to transform the signals from time domain to frequency domain to produce the reference data. Finally, according to the correlation coefficients of the new data and the references in the frequency domain, the SSVEP is classified. The experimental results show the enhanced accuracy of our method when applied to low stimulate frequencies.
KeywordsBCI SSVEP Overlapping average FFT CCA in frequency domain
This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation (Grant No. 61003168), Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 4112050), and Excellent Researcher Award Program and Basic Research Foundation of Beijing Institute of Technology.
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