Labour markets in most highly developed countries are characterised by increasing inequalities in qualifications-specific employment prospects. Nickel and Bell (1995) for example find that the demand for high-skilled workers is steadily rising, while low-skilled employment is subject to a considerable decline in many countries of the OECD. On the one hand, this might be explained by a growing supply of skills due to the educational expansion in the 1960s and 1970s. On the other hand, it can be argued, that the increasing international division of labour together with technological and organisational change have been leading to a unilateral rise in the demand for high-skilled labour whereas the low-skilled compete increasingly with workers in low-wages countries (see Wood 1994, 2002). Furthermore, as a consequence of skill-biased technological and organisational changes more and more less qualified workers do not meet the increasing requirements of jobs on the domestic labour market (see Acemoglu 1998, 2002; Lindbeck and Snower 1996; Spitz-Oener 2006). Some authors also find evidence for a polarisation in skill-specific employment. Autor et al. (2003) hypothesise that highly standardised occupations of medium-skilled employees, such as book- and record-keeping, may be displaced more easily by technological innovations, e.g. by computer programmes, than comparatively simple and less standardised jobs, such as cleaning. Further empirical evidence for this hypothesis is provided by Manning (2004) or Goos and Manning (2007) for the UK and Spitz-Oener (2006) for Germany.
Human Capital Regional Disparity Regional Labour Market Human Capital Endowment Segregation Measure
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Financial support from the German Research Foundation (DFG) is gratefully acknowledged as part of the project “The Regional Dimension of the Qualification-Related Structural Change”.
Acemoglu D (1998) Why do new technologies complement skills? Directed technical change and wage inequality. Q J Econ 113(4):1055–1089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Acemoglu D (1999) Changes in unemployment and wage inequality: an alternative theory and some evidence. Am Econ Rev 89(5):1259–1278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Autor DH, Levy F, Murnane RJ (2003) The skill content of recent technological change: an empirical exploration. Q J Econ 118(4):1279–1333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Braakmann N (2009) The role of firm-level and regional human capital for the social returns to education – evidence from German social security data. Working paper series in Economics (126)Google Scholar
Card D (2001) Estimating the returns to schooling: progress on some persistent econometric problems. Econometrica 69:1127–1160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cutler DM, Glaeser EL, Vigdor JL (1999) The rise and decline of the American Ghetto. J Polit Econ 107(3):455–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davis S Haltiwanger J (1991) Wage dispersion between and within U.S. manufacturing plants, 1963–86. Brooking papers on economic activity, Microeconomics, pp 115–180Google Scholar
Driscoll J, Kraay AC (1998) Consistent covariance matrix estimation with spatially dependent data. Rev Econ Stat 80:549–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duncan OB, Duncan B (1955) A methodological analysis of segregation indexes. Am Sociol Rev 20:210–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duranton G (2004) The economics of production systems: segmentation and skill-biased change. Eur Econ Rev 48:307–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flückiger Y, Silber J (1999) The measurement of segregation in the labor force. Physica, HeidelbergCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fromhold-Eisebith M, Schrattenecker W (2006) Qualifikationsentwicklung der Beschäftigten in Deutschland. Eine raumbezogene Analyse. Raumforschung und Raumordnung 64(4):258–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gerlach K, Meyer W, Tsertsvadze G (2002) Entwicklung der qualifikatorischen Segregation im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe. Betrieblicher Wandel und Fachkräftebedarf -, Beiträge zur Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung 257:51–80Google Scholar
Goos M, Manning A (2007) Lousy and lovely jobs: the rising polarisation of work in Britain. Rev Econ Stat 89(1):118–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar