Returns to Communication in Specialised and Diversified US Cities

  • Suzanne KokEmail author
Part of the Advances in Spatial Science book series (ADVSPATIAL)


A key factor in today’s urban wealth is the means by which cities reduce costs of communication. Rapid progress in transport, information and communication technologies lowered the costs of production at distance. Still, in 2009 metropolitan areas were responsible for 85 % of US employment, income and production. The significance of personal communication for innovation is a fundamental aspect of the current economic success of cities. The economic structure of cities varies; diversified cities focusing on producing ideas and specialised cities focusing on producing products successfully coexist in the US. Is communication equally important and valued within both city types?


Work Activity Specialisation Level Knowledge Spillover Current Population Survey City Size 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



I thank Steven Brakman, Harry Garretsen, Andrea Jaeger, Jasper de Jong, Bas ter Weel, two anonymous referees and seminar participants at the SOM conference and the Tinbergen Workshop for many insightful comments.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Groningen and CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy AnalysisDen HaagThe Netherlands

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