Advertisement

Risk Identification at the Interface between Business Case and Requirements

  • David Callele
  • Birgit Penzenstadler
  • Krzysztof Wnuk
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7830)

Abstract

[Motivation:] The requirements engineering (RE) research community is aware of the importance of performing feasibility studies before starting requirements elicitation. Unfortunately, projects still frequently fail to achieve commercial success, responsibility is often unknown, and requirements engineers may be deemed responsible for mistakes made by others. [Problem:] There is neither empirical evidence available from a post-mortem risk analysis for projects that performed adequate RE but commercially failed nor guidance for requirements engineers on validating a business case analysis to mitigate this risk. [Principal idea:] By performing a post-mortem analysis of software development projects that failed to achieve commercial success, we investigate the root causes for the failures and, in most cases, trace the causes back to business case issues. We identify risk areas and provide practical due diligence guidance to the practitioner. [Contribution:] This exploratory case study performs an in-depth review of a detailed post-mortem analysis of three software development projects performed over a 2.5 year period. Each of the analyzed projects failed to make the expected transition to commercialization despite using appropriate RE techniques and achieving satisfactory deliverables. The analysis identifies risk factors that the RE practitioner should consider and we provide a checklist for RE practitioners to use when checking for these risks in an antecedent business case as part of their due diligence. A low-cost commercial viability assessment technique, employing Fermi approximation, is provided to equip the RE practitioner with a risk mitigation tool in the absence of business analyst resources.

Keywords

Risk identification risk mitigation commercial risk due diligence commercialization commercial success success factors business case business analyst 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    de Marco, T.: All late projects are the same. IEEE Software, 102–103 (2012)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Boehm, B.: Value-based software engineering. ACM Software Engineering Notes 28, 1–12 (2003)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aurum, A., Wohlin, C.: A value-based approach in requirements engineering: Explaining some of the fundamental concepts. In: Sawyer, P., Heymans, P. (eds.) REFSQ 2007. LNCS, vol. 4542, pp. 109–115. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hughes, B., Cotterell, M.: Software Project Management. McGraw-Hill (2009)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Weinstein, L., Adam, J.A.: Guesstimation: Solving the World’s Problems on the Back of a Cocktail Napkin. Princeton University Press (2008)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bubenko, J.: Challenges in requirements engineering. In: Proc. Second IEEE Int. Symposium on Requirements Engineering, pp. 160–165. IEEE Press (1995)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    WebFinance, Inc.: Definition by Business Dictionary: Business Case (2012) http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/business-case.html
  8. 8.
    Atle Gulla, J., Brasethvik, T.: On the challenges of business modeling in large-scale reengineering projects. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Requirements Engineering, pp. 17–26 (2000)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Farbey, B., Finkelstein, A.: Software acquisition: a business strategy analysis. In: Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE International Symposium on Requirements Engineering, pp. 76–83 (2001)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Arao, T., Goto, E., Nagata, T.: ”business process” oriented requirements engineering process. In: Proceedings of the 13th IEEE International Conference on Requirements Engineering, pp. 395–399 (2005)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lehtola, L., Kauppinen, M., Kujala, S.: Linking the business view to requirements engineering: long-term product planning by roadmapping. In: Proceedings of the 13th IEEE Int. Conference on Requirements Engineering, pp. 439–443 (2005)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Monteiro, M., Ebert, C., Recknagel, M.: Improving the exchange of requirements and specifications between business partners. In: 17th IEEE International Conference on Requirements Engineering, RE 2009, pp. 253–260 (2009)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gordijn, J., Petit, M., Wieringa, R.: Understanding business strategies of networked value constellations using goal- and value modeling. In: 14th IEEE International Conference on Requirements Engineering, pp. 129–138 (2006)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wegmann, A., Julia, P., Regev, G., Perroud, O., Rychkova, I.: Early requirements and business-it alignment with seam for business. In: 15th IEEE International Conference on Requirements Engineering, RE 2007, pp. 111–114 (2007)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Karagiannis, D., Mylopoulos, J., Schwab, M.: Business process-based regulation compliance: The case of the sarbanes-oxley act. In: 15th IEEE International Conference on Requirements Engineering, RE 2007, pp. 315–321 (2007)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wever, A., Maiden, N.: What are the day-to-day factors that are preventing business analysts from effective business analysis? In: 2011 19th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE), pp. 293–298 (2011)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ropponen, J., Lyytinen, K.: Can software risk management improve system development: an exploratory study. European Journal of Information Systems 6, 41–50 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lyytinen, K., Hirschheim, R.: Oxford surveys in information technology, pp. 257–309. Oxford University Press, Inc., New York (1987)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lyytinen, K., Mathiassen, L., Ropponen, J.: A framework for software risk management. Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems 8, 53–68 (1996)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Palmer, J., Evans, R.: Software risk management: requirements-based risk metrics. In: 1994 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Humans, Information and Technology, vol. 1, pp. 836–841 (1994)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yin, R.: Case study research: Design and methods. Sage Publications (2008)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Runeson, P., Host, M., Rainer, A., Regnell, B.: Case Study Research in Software Engineering: Guidelines and Examples. Wiley (2012)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Seaman, C.: Qualitative methods in empirical studies of software engineering. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 25, 557–572 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Robson, C.: Real World Research. Blackwell Publishing (2002)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lethbridge, T., Sim, S., Singer, J.: Studying software engineers: Data collection techniques for software field studies. Empirical Software Engineering Journal 10, 311–341 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Easterbrook, S.M., Singer, J., Storey, M., Damian, D.: Selecting Empirical Methods for Software Engineering Research. In: Guide to Advanced Empirical Software Engineering, pp. 285–311. Springer (2007)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brennan, K.: A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge (Babok Guide). International Institute of Business Analysis (2009)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Project Management Institute: A Guide To The Project Management Body Of Knowledge (PMBOK Guides). Project Management Institute (2008)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Callele
    • 1
  • Birgit Penzenstadler
    • 2
  • Krzysztof Wnuk
    • 3
  1. 1.University of Saskatchewan SaskatoonCanada
  2. 2.Software & Systems EngineeringTechnische Universität MünchenGermany
  3. 3.Software EngineeringLund UniversitySweden

Personalised recommendations