Advertisement

Schizoaffective Disorder

  • Kostas N. Fountoulakis
Chapter

Abstract

It is well known that Kraepelin divided the psychoses into dementia praecox and manic–depressive illness on the basis of a supposed progressive deterioration for the first and a better long-term outcome for the latter. However, even Kraepelin himself reported that his clinical experience included many patients with features of both disorders. These patients were so many that he characterized their frequency as ‘displeasing’. These cases have attracted the interest of researchers in the last few decades, but their diagnostic status is still uncertain.

Keywords

Bipolar Disorder Mood Disorder Psychotic Symptom Psychotic Disorder Schizoaffective Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Angst J (1980) Course of unipolar depressive, bipolar manic-depressive, and schizoaffective disorders. Results of a prospective longitudinal study (author’s transl). Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr Grenzgeb 48(1):3–30. doi: 10.1055/s-2007-1002365 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Angst J (1986a) The course of affective disorders. Psychopathology 19(Suppl 2):47–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Angst J (1986b) The course of schizoaffective disorders. In: Marneros A, Tsuang MT (eds) Schizoaffective psychoses. Springer, Berlin, pp 18–30Google Scholar
  4. Angst J (2002) Historical aspects of the dichotomy between manic-depressive disorders and schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 57(1):5–13. doi:S0920996402003286 [pii]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Angst J, Felder W, Lohmeyer B (1979) Schizoaffective disorders. Results of a genetic investigation, I. J Affect Disord 1(2):139–153. doi:0165-0327(79)90033-8 [pii]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Angst J, Felder W, Lohmeyer B (1980) Course of schizoaffective psychoses: results of a followup study. Schizophr Bull 6(4):579–585PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Armbruster B, Gross G, Huber G (1983) Long-term prognosis and course of schizo-affective, schizophreniform, and cycloid psychoses. Psychiatr Clin (Basel) 16(2–4):156–168Google Scholar
  8. Astrup C, Noreik K (1966) Functional psychoses: diagnostic and prognostic models. Charles C Thomas, SpringfieldGoogle Scholar
  9. Astrup C, Fossum A, Holmboe R (1959) A follow-up of 270 patients with acute affective psychoses. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl 34(135):1–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Averill PM, Reas DL, Shack A, Shah NN, Cowan K, Krajewski K, Kopecky C, Guynn RW (2004) Is schizoaffective disorder a stable diagnostic category: a retrospective examination. Psychiatr Q 75(3):215–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Avery D, Winokur G (1976) Mortality in depressed patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy and antidepressants. Arch Gen Psychiatry 33(9):1029–1037PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ballenger JC, Reus VI, Post RM (1982) The “atypical” clinical picture of adolescent mania. Am J Psychiatry 139(5):602–606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Barnett JH, Smoller JW (2009) The genetics of bipolar disorder. Neuroscience 164(1):331–343. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.03.080, S0306-4522(09)00576-4 [pii]PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Baron M, Gruen R, Asnis L, Kane J (1982) Schizoaffective illness, schizophrenia and affective disorders: morbidity risk and genetic transmission. Acta Psychiatr Scand 65(4):253–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Berner P, Lenz G (1986) Definitions of schizoaffective psychosis: mutual concordance and relationship to schizophrenia and affective disorder. In: Marneros A, Tsuang MT (eds) Schizoaffective psychoses. Springer, Berlin, pp 18–30Google Scholar
  16. Berrios GE, Beer D (1994) The notion of a unitary psychosis: a conceptual history. Hist Psychiatry 5(17 Pt 1):13–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brockington IF, Kendell RE, Wainwright S (1980) Depressed patients with schizophrenic or paranoid symptoms. Psychol Med 10(4):665–675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brockington IF, Helzer JE, Hillier VF, Francis AF (1982) Definitions of depression: concordance and prediction of outcome. Am J Psychiatry 139(8):1022–1027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Carlson GA, Strober M (1978) Affective disorder in adolescence: issues in misdiagnosis. J Clin Psychiatry 39(1):59–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cheniaux E, Landeira-Fernandez J, Lessa Telles L, Lessa JL, Dias A, Duncan T, Versiani M (2008) Does schizoaffective disorder really exist? A systematic review of the studies that compared schizoaffective disorder with schizophrenia or mood disorders. J Affect Disord 106(3):209–217. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2007.07.009, S0165-0327(07)00262-5 [pii]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Clark JA, Mallett BL (1963) A follow up study of schizophrenia and depression in young adults. Br J Psychiatry 109:491–499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Clayton PJ (1982) Schizoaffective disorders. J Nerv Ment Dis 170(11):646–650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Coryell W, Tsuang MT (1982) Primary unipolar depression and the prognostic importance of delusions. Arch Gen Psychiatry 39(10):1181–1184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Coryell W, Lavori P, Endicott J, Keller M, VanEerdewegh M (1984) Outcome in schizoaffective, psychotic, and nonpsychotic depression. Course during a six- to 24-month follow-up. Arch Gen Psychiatry 41(8):787–791PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Craddock N, O’Donovan MC, Owen MJ (2009) Psychosis genetics: modeling the relationship between schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and mixed (or “schizoaffective”) psychoses. Schizophr Bull 35(3):482–490. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbp020, sbp020 [pii]PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Croughan JL, Robins E (1974) The group of schizoaffective and related psychoses–critique, record, follow-up and family studies. II Record studies. Arch Gen Psychiatry 31(5):632–637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cutting JC, Clare AW, Mann AH (1978) Cycloid psychosis: an investigation of the diagnostic concept. Psychol Med 8(4):637–648PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Endicott J, Forman JB, Spitzer RL (1978) Research approaches to diagnostic classification in schizophrenia. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser 14(5):41–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Gift TE, Strauss JS, Kokes RF, Harder DW, Ritzler BA (1980) Schizophrenia: affect and outcome. Am J Psychiatry 137(5):580–585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Grossman LS, Harrow M, Fudala JL, Meltzer HY (1984) The longitudinal course of schizoaffective disorders. A prospective follow-up study. J Nerv Ment Dis 172(3):140–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hamshere ML, O’Donovan MC, Jones IR, Jones L, Kirov G, Green EK, Moskvina V, Grozeva D, Bass N, McQuillin A, Gurling H, St Clair D, Young AH, Ferrier IN, Farmer A, McGuffin P, Sklar P, Purcell S, Holmans PA, Owen MJ, Craddock N (2011) Polygenic dissection of the bipolar phenotype. Br J Psychiatry 198(4):284–288. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.110.087866, 198/4/284 [pii]PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Himmelhoch JM, Fuchs CZ, May SJ, Symons BJ, Neil JF (1981) When a schizoaffective diagnosis has meaning. J Nerv Ment Dis 169(5):277–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Holmboe R, Astrup C (1957) A follow-up study of 255 patients with acute schizophrenia and schizophreniform psychoses. Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand Suppl 115:9–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Holmboe R, Noreik K, Astrup C (1968) Follow-up of functional psychoses at two Norwegian mental hospitals. Acta Psychiatr Scand 44(3):298–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jabs BE, Pfuhlmann B, Bartsch AJ, Cetkovich-Bakmas MG, Stober G (2002) Cycloid psychoses – from clinical concepts to biological foundations. J Neural Transm 109(5–6):907–919. doi: 10.1007/s007020200074 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jaspers K (1973) Allgemeine psychopathologie, 9th edn. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  37. Joyce PR (1984) Age of onset in bipolar affective disorder and misdiagnosis as schizophrenia. Psychol Med 14(1):145–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kant O (1940) Types and analyses of the clinical pictures of recovered schizophrenics. Psychiat Q 14:676–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kasanin J (1933) The acute schizoaffective psychoses. Am J Psychiatry 13:97–126Google Scholar
  40. Kasanin J (1994) The acute schizoaffective psychoses. 1933. Am J Psychiatry 151(6 Suppl):144–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kendell RE (1986) The relationship of schizoaffective illnesses to schizophrenic and affective disorders. In: Marneros A, Tsuang MT (eds) Schizoaffective psychoses. Springer, Berlin, pp 18–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kendell RE, Gourlay J (1970) The clinical distinction between the affective psychoses and schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 117(538):261–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Koehler K (1983) Prognostic prediction in RDC schizo-affective disorder on the basis of first-rank symptoms weighted in terms of outcome. Psychiatr Clin (Basel) 16(2–4):186–197Google Scholar
  44. Lake CR, Hurwitz N (2006) Schizoaffective disorders are psychotic mood disorders; there are no schizoaffective disorders. Psychiatry Res 143(2–3):255–287. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2005.08.012, S0165-1781(05)00264-7 [pii]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Langfeldt G (1937) The prognosis of schizophrenia and the factors influencing the course of the disease. Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand Suppl 13:1–128Google Scholar
  46. Laursen TM, Labouriau R, Licht RW, Bertelsen A, Munk-Olsen T, Mortensen PB (2005) Family history of psychiatric illness as a risk factor for schizoaffective disorder: a Danish register-based cohort study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62(8):841–848. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.62.8.841, 62/8/841 [pii]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Leonhard K (1957a) Cycloid psychoses, often erroneously considered as schizophrenia. Psychiatr Neurol Med Psychol (Leipz) 9(12):359–365Google Scholar
  48. Leonhard K (1957b) Pathogenesis of manic-depressive disease. Nervenarzt 28(6):271–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Malhi GS, Green M, Fagiolini A, Peselow ED, Kumari V (2008) Schizoaffective disorder: diagnostic issues and future recommendations. Bipolar Disord 10(1 Pt 2):215–230. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2007.00564.x, BDI564 [pii]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Marneros A (1983) Kurt Schneider’s ‘Zwischen-Falle’, ‘mid-cases’ or ‘cases in between’. Psychiatr Clin (Basel) 16(2–4):87–102Google Scholar
  51. Marneros A (2003) The schizoaffective phenomenon: the state of the art. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl 418:29–33. doi:177 [pii]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Marneros A, Deister A, Rohde A (1988a) Syndrome shift in the long-term course of schizoaffective disorders. Eur Arch Psychiatry Neurol Sci 238(2):97–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Marneros A, Rohde A, Deister A, Fimmers R, Junemann H (1988b) Long-term course of schizoaffective disorders. Part III: onset, type of episodes and syndrome shift, precipitating factors, suicidality, seasonality, inactivity of illness, and outcome. Eur Arch Psychiatry Neurol Sci 237(5):283–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Marneros A, Deister A, Rohde A (1991) Stability of diagnoses in affective, schizoaffective and schizophrenic disorders. Cross-sectional versus longitudinal diagnosis. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 241(3):187–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Marneros A, Rottig S, Wenzel A, Bloink R, Brieger P (2004) Affective and schizoaffective mixed states. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 254(2):76–81. doi: 10.1007/s00406-004-0462-9 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mendlewicz J, Linkowski P, Wilmotte J (1980) Relationship between schizoaffective illness and affective disorders or schizophrenia. Morbidity risk and genetic transmission. J Affect Disord 2(4):289–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Moller HJ (2008) Systematic of psychiatric disorders between categorical and dimensional approaches: Kraepelin’s dichotomy and beyond. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 258(Suppl 2):48–73. doi: 10.1007/s00406-008-2004-3 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Moller HJ, Werner-Eilert K, Wuschner-Stockheim M, von Zerssen D (1982) Relevant predictors of the 5 year outcome of patients with schizophrenic or similar paranoid psychoses (author’s transl). Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 231(4):305–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Noreik K, Astrup C, Dalgard OS, Holmboe R (1967) A prolonged follow-up of acute schizophrenic and schizophreniform psychoses. Acta Psychiatr Scand 43(4):432–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Perris C (1966) A study of bipolar (manic-depressive) and unipolar recurrent depressive psychoses. Introduction. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl 194:9–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pope HG Jr, Lipinski JF Jr (1978) Diagnosis in schizophrenia and manic-depressive illness: a reassessment of the specificity of ‘schizophrenic’ symptoms in the light of current research. Arch Gen Psychiatry 35(7):811–828PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pope HG Jr, Lipinski JF, Cohen BM, Axelrod DT (1980) “Schizoaffective disorder”: an invalid diagnosis? A comparison of schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia, and affective disorder. Am J Psychiatry 137(8):921–927PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Post F (1971) Schizo-affective symptomatology in late life. Br J Psychiatry 118(545):437–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Reichenberg A, Harvey PD, Bowie CR, Mojtabai R, Rabinowitz J, Heaton RK, Bromet E (2009) Neuropsychological function and dysfunction in schizophrenia and psychotic affective disorders. Schizophr Bull 35(5):1022–1029. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbn044, sbn044 [pii]PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Scharfetter C, Nusperli M (1980) The group of schizophrenias, schizoaffective psychoses, and affective disorders. Schizophr Bull 6(4):586–591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Schneider K (1973) Klinische psychopathologie, 10th edn. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  67. Simonsen C, Sundet K, Vaskinn A, Birkenaes AB, Engh JA, Faerden A, Jonsdottir H, Ringen PA, Opjordsmoen S, Melle I, Friis S, Andreassen OA (2011) Neurocognitive dysfunction in bipolar and schizophrenia spectrum disorders depends on history of psychosis rather than diagnostic group. Schizophr Bull 37(1):73–83. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbp034 sbp034 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Spitzer RL, Andreasen NC, Endicott J (1978a) Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders in DSM-III. Schizophr Bull 4(4):489–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Spitzer RL, Endicott J, Robins E (1978b) Research diagnostic criteria: rationale and reliability. Arch Gen Psychiatry 35(6):773–782PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Studentkowski G, Scheele D, Calabrese P, Balkau F, Hoffler J, Aubel T, Edel MA, Juckel G, Assion HJ (2010) Cognitive impairment in patients with a schizoaffective disorder: a comparison with bipolar patients in euthymia. Eur J Med Res 15(2):70–78PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Szoke A, Meary A, Trandafir A, Bellivier F, Roy I, Schurhoff F, Leboyer M (2008) Executive deficits in psychotic and bipolar disorders – implications for our understanding of schizoaffective disorder. Eur Psychiatry 23(1):20–25. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2007.10.006, S0924-9338(07)01422-8 [pii]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Torrent C, Martinez-Aran A, Amann B, Daban C, Tabares-Seisdedos R, Gonzalez-Pinto A, Reinares M, Benabarre A, Salamero M, McKenna P, Vieta E (2007) Cognitive impairment in schizoaffective disorder: a comparison with non-psychotic bipolar and healthy subjects. Acta Psychiatr Scand 116(6):453–460. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2007.01072.x, ACP1072 [pii]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Tsuang MT, Dempsey GM (1979) Long-term outcome of major psychoses. II. Schizoaffective disorder compared with schizophrenia, affective disorders, and a surgical control group. Arch Gen Psychiatry 36(12):1302–1304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tsuang MT, Dempsey M, Rauscher F (1976) A study of “atypical schizophrenia”. Comparison with schizophrenia and affective disorder by sex, age of admission, precipitant, outcome, and family history. Arch Gen Psychiatry 33(10):11157–11160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tsuang MT, Dempsey GM, Dvoredsky A, Struss A (1977) A family history study of schizo-affective disorder. Biol Psychiatry 12(3):331–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Tsuang MT, Woolson RF, Fleming JA (1979) Long-term outcome of major psychoses. I Schizophrenia and affective disorders compared with psychiatrically symptom-free surgical conditions. Arch Gen Psychiatry 36(12):1295–1301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Vaillant GE (1962) The prediction of recovery in schizophrenia. J Nerv Ment Dis 135:534–543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Welner A, Croughan J, Fishman R, Robins E (1977a) The group of schizoaffective and related psychoses: a follow-up study. Compr Psychiatry 18(5):413–422. doi:0010-440X(77)90039-6 [pii]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Welner A, Welner Z, Leonard MA (1977b) Bipolar manic-depressive disorder: a reassessment of course and outcome. Compr Psychiatry 18(4):327–332. doi:0010-440X(77)90003-7 [pii]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Welner A, Welner Z, Fishman R (1979) The group of schizoaffective and related psychoses: IV. A family study. Compr Psychiatry 20(1):21–26. doi:0010-440X(79)90056-7 [pii]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Winokur G, Scharfetter C, Angst J (1985) A family study of psychotic symptomatology in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, unipolar depression, and bipolar disorder. Eur Arch Psychiatry Neurol Sci 234(5):295–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kostas N. Fountoulakis
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Neurosciences 3rd Department of PsychiatryAristotle University of Thessaloniki School of MedicineThessalonikiGreece

Personalised recommendations