Long-Term Course

  • Kostas N. Fountoulakis


Historically, the first note on polarity was made in the early 1960s when Leonhard reported that 17.9 % of patients had a manic and 25.6 % had a depressive predominant polarity, while the rest of the patients had similar occurrence of the two poles. However, the concept was formulated by Jules Angst.


Personality Disorder Bipolar Patient Bipolar Depression Manic Episode Rapid Cycling 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kostas N. Fountoulakis
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Neurosciences 3rd Department of PsychiatryAristotle University of Thessaloniki School of MedicineThessalonikiGreece

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