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Biological Therapies

  • Kostas N. Fountoulakis
Chapter

Abstract

Bipolar disorder is complex, with different facets and stages, and it is not exactly known how this affects the everyday clinical practice. Its treatment is also complex, and unfortunately the hard data are insufficient to support all decisions. Reports at the case report level do exist, but they should not be considered sufficient. Rigorously collected data are available only for a limited number of agents and for selected aspects of the disease. There are a number of issues which are still open to discussion. These include the definition of maintenance and of refractoriness but mainly what is the most appropriate sequence of steps in the long-term treatment. The current chapter will systematically review the hard pharmaceutical data on the treatment of BD. As it will focus on efficacy data specifically for BD, only a brief description of the most important agents or groups of agents and their adverse events will be made, since these can be found easily in other books and sources.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kostas N. Fountoulakis
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Neurosciences 3rd Department of PsychiatryAristotle University of Thessaloniki School of MedicineThessalonikiGreece

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