Staging of Bipolar Disorder

  • Kostas N. Fountoulakis


After the revolution which was brought with the introduction of operationalized diagnostic criteria by contemporary classification systems, the reliability and the validity of psychiatric diagnosis were greatly improved. Following the improvement in categorical diagnosis, two new needs emerge. The first is to explore all aspects of symptomatology and quantify severity. This is a function addressed with the use of psychometric and neuropsychological tools. There is much improvement in this field although much remains to be done (see Chap. 14). The second and still unfulfilled need is to define and rate seriousness, progression, changes in physiology and damage made and the extent and the specific characteristics of the disease. ‘Staging’ is the term which defines this procedure and it can provide the clinician with a valuable tool to assist the treatment design.


BDNF Level Manic Episode Neurocognitive Impairment Unipolar Depression Rapid Cycling 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kostas N. Fountoulakis
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Neurosciences 3rd Department of PsychiatryAristotle University of Thessaloniki School of MedicineThessalonikiGreece

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