• Kostas N. Fountoulakis


‘Comorbidity’ is a term introduced by Feinstein to refer to the coexistence of two essentially independent and distinct disorders. According to this early concept, there exists an ‘index’ or ‘primary’ disorder and a comorbid separate second disorder which potentially affects the selection of treatment and the prognosis of the index one. Comorbidity may be due to chance or to ascertainment bias (Berkson’s bias); however, the consistent pattern of comorbidity concerning several disorders (e.g. comorbid anxiety and depression) makes unlikely the suggestion it is happening by chance. According to some authors, the conceptual overlapping especially between mood and anxiety disorders and the overlapping of symptoms might produce an ‘artefactual comorbidity’.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kostas N. Fountoulakis
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Neurosciences 3rd Department of PsychiatryAristotle University of Thessaloniki School of MedicineThessalonikiGreece

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