Analysis of the Critical Success Factors for ERP Systems Implementation in U.S. Federal Offices

  • Asmamaw A. Mengistie
  • Dennis P. Heaton
  • Maxwell Rainforth
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Information Systems and Organisation book series (LNISO, volume 4)


Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation is a complex information technology project that integrates organization-wide operations. Prior surveys have reported perceptions about factors which are critical to ERP implementation success. But no prior research has empirically tested the relationship between ERP implementation factors (IFs) as independent variables and project success indicators as dependent variables. In the present study the research questions were: (1) is there a statistically significant relationship between an identified set of implementation factors for ERP projects and the empirically reported success indicators? (2) Do specific individual factors predict the level of success? Paper and online surveys were collected from 92 senior level ERP project participants—CIOs, project managers, executives and consultant/developers with experience on Federal ERP implementation projects. The study provided descriptive survey results for ERP implementation success and perceived effectiveness of implementation factors in the environment of U.S. Federal government ERP projects.


Entreprise resource planning Implementation Government Project success 


  1. 1.
    Al-Masbari, M., Al-Mudlmigh, A., Zairi, M.: Enterprise Resource Planning: A Taxonomy of Critical Factors. Eur. J. Oper. Res. 146(2), 352–365 (2003)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Al-Fawaz, K., Al-Salti, Z., Eldabi, T.: Critical Success Factors in ERP Implementation: A Review. European and Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (2008), Al Bustan Rotana Hotel, Dubai. Retrieved February 2012 from
  3. 3.
    AMR Research: The ERP Market Sizing Report, 2006–2011. (2007). Accessed 25 May 2011
  4. 4.
    Archer, K.J., Lemeshw, S.: Goodness-of-fit test for a logistic regression model fitted using survey sample data. Stata J. 6(1), 97–105. (2006). Retrieved May 2012Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bearing Point.: Implementing ERP systems in the public sector: nine sure ways to fail or succeed. (2004). Accessed September 2011
  6. 6.
    Bhatti, T.R.: Critical success factors for the implementation of enterprise resource planning (erp): empirical validation. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Innovation in Information Technology (IIT”05), pp. 1–10, Dubai, UAE. (2005). Accessed November 2011
  7. 7.
    Blick, G., Gulledge, T., Sommer, R.: Defining business process requirements for large-scale public sector ERP implementations: a case study. In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems, Wirtschafts Universität, Wien. (2000). Accessed November 2011
  8. 8.
    Chang, S., Gable, G.: A comparative analysis of major ERP life cycle implementation, management and support issues in Queensland government, Queensland University of Technology, Information Systems Management Research Center, pp. 1152–1166 (2000)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chang, S., Gable, G., Smythe, E., Timbrell, G.: A Delphi examination of public sector ERP implementation issues. In: Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Information Systems, pp. 494–500. (2000). Accessed 21 March 2011
  10. 10.
    Chung, Y.: An analysis of success and failure factors for ERP systems in engineering and construction firms. University of Maryland, Faculty of the Graduate School, pp. 3–6 (2007)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Deloitte Research: The keys to smart enterprise transformation for the public sector, Deloitte Consulting and Deloitte & Touche. (2002). Accessed 5 April 2011
  12. 12.
    Deloitte Research: ERP change management survey (2005). Accessed 26 May 2011
  13. 13.
    Dinan, M.: Report: federal government IT spending to approach $100 billion per year by 2012. (2008). Accessed 21 May 2011
  14. 14.
    Duncan William, R: Defining and measuring project success, project management partners. (2004). Accessed April 2012
  15. 15.
    Esteves, J., Pastor, J.: Towards the unification of critical factors for ERP implementations. In: 10th Annual Business Information Technology (BIT) 2000 Conference, Manchester (2000)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Esteves, J., Pastor, J.: A framework to analyze most critical work packages in ERP implementation projects. In: International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, Spain (2002)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gable, G.: Large package software: a neglected technology? J. Glob. Inf. Manag. 6(3), 3–4 (1998)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Grabski, S.V., Leech, S.A.: Risks and controls in the implementation of ERP systems. Int. J. Dig. Acc. Res. 1(1), 47–68 (2001)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Heintze, T., Bretschneider, S.: Information technology and restructuring in public organizations: does adoption of information technology affect organizational structures, communications, and decision making? J. Public Adm. Res. Theory 10(4), 801–830 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Heydenrych, G., Cloete, E.: ERP transition to e-commerce: training for a new methodology. In: Proceedings of the 2007 Computer Science and IT Education Conference, pp. 323–334 (2007)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Holland, C.P., Light, B.: A critical success factors model for ERP implementation. IEEE Software, (May/June), pp. 30–35 (1999)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Holland, C.P., Light, B., Gibson, N.: A critical success factors model for enterprise resource planning systems implementation. In: Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Information Systems, Copenhagen, Denmark (1999)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jarrar, Y.F., Al-Mudimigh, A., Zairi, M.: ERP implementations critical success factors – The role and impact of business process management. Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE International Conference on Management of Innovation and Technology ICMIT 2000 Management in the 21st Century, pp. 122–125 (2000)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jiang, Y.: Critical success factors in ERP implementation in Finland. Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, Finland, pp. 5–6 (2005)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kumar, K., Hillegersberg, J.: ERP experiences and evolution. Commun. ACM 43(4), 23–26 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kumar, V., Maheshwari, B., Kumar, U.: Enterprise resource planning systems adoption process: a survey of Canadian organizations. Int. J. Prod. Res. 40, 509–523 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Light, B., Papazafeiropoulou, A.: Reasons behind ERP package adoption: a diffusion of innovations perspective. In: Leino, T., Saarinen, T., Klein, S. (eds.) Proceedings of the Twelfth European Conference on Information Systems, pp. 1062–1074. Turku School of Economics and Business Administration, Turku, Finland (2004)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Management Information Systems in Public and Private Business: An Empirical Test. Management Information Systems, (1990), pp.536–545Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mark, K.W.: Information systems technologies: A public-private sector comparison. J. Comput. Inform. Syst. 46(3), 50–56 (2006)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Markus, M.L., Tanis, C.: The enterprise systems experience–from adoption to success. In: Zmud, R.W. (ed.) Framing the domains of IT research Glimpsing the future through the past, vol. 173, pp. 173–207. Pinnaflex Educational Resources, Cincinnati (2000)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mohan, S.: Successful systems implementation. White Paper Deloitte and Touche, Public Sector. http:/ (2003)
  32. 32.
    Motwani, J., Subramanian, R., Gopalakrishna, P.: Critical factors for successful ERP implementation: exploratory findings from four case studies. Comput. Ind. 56(6), 529–544. (2005). Accessed 18 Apr 2011. Systems/Motwani (2005) Critical factors for successful ERP implementation.pdf
  33. 33.
    Nah, F., Delgado, S.: Critical success factors for enterprise resource planning implementation and upgrade. J. Comput. Inf. Syst. (46), pp. 99–113 (2006)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Neely, T.: Leading through an ERP implementation. J. Gov. Financial Manag. 54(4), 38–41 (2005)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pabedinskaitė, A.: Factors of successful implementation of ERP systems. Econ. Manag. 2010(15), 691–697 (2010)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pinto, J.K., Slevin, D.P.: Balancing strategy and tactics in project implementation. Sloan Management Review, (Fall), pp. 33–44 (1987)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pinto, J.K., Slevin, D.P.: Project success: definitions and measurement techniques. Proj. Manag. J. 19(1), 70–71 (1998)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Plant, R., Wilcocks, L.: Critical success factors in international ERP implementations: a case research approach. J. Comput. Inf. Syst. 47(3). (2007). Accessed 15 January 2011
  39. 39.
    Raymond, L., Uwizeyemungu, S., Bergeron, F.: ERP adoption for E-Government : an analysis of motivation. eGovernment Workshop’05 (eGOV05), September 13 2005, Brunel University, West London, UK. (2005). Accessed 27 May 2011
  40. 40.
    Shanks, G., Parr, A., Hu, B., Corbitt, B.J., Thanasankit, T., Seddon, P.: Differences in critical success factors in ERP systems implementation in Australia and China: a cultural analysis. In: Hansen, H.R., Bichler, M., Mahrer, H., (eds.) Proceedings of the Eighth European Conference on Information Systems, Vienna (2000)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Shenhar, A J., Wideman, R.M.: Improving PM: linking success criteria to project type. AEW Services, Vancouver, BC ©2001. (2001). Retrieved January 2012
  42. 42.
    Slevin, D.P., Pinto, J.K.: Balancing strategy and tactics in project implementation. Sloan Manag. Rev. (Fall), pp. 33–44 (1987)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Somers, T.M., Nelson, C.: The impact of critical success factors across the stages of enterprise resource planning implementations. In: Proceedings of the 34th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences—2001 (2001)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sommer, R.: Public sector ERP implementation: successfully engaging middle-management. Commun. IBIMA 2011 p. 2 (2011)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Thomas, G., Jajodia, S.: Commercial-off-the-shelf enterprise resource planning software implementations in the public sector. J. Govern. Financial Manag. (2004). Retrieved 3 March 2011
  46. 46.
    Wagner, W., Antonucci, L.: An analysis of the imagine PA public sector ERP project. In: Proceedings of the 37th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences—2004Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wagner, W., Antonucci, L.: The imagine PA project: the first large-scale, public sector ERP implementation. Inf. Syst. Manag. 26, 275–284 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wallace, T.F., Kremzar, M.H.: ERP: making it happen; the implementers guide to success with enterprise. Wiley, New York (2001)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Watson, E., Vaught, S., Gutierrez, D., Rinks, D.: ERP implementation in state government. Annals of IT case studies. Idea Group Inc, Hershey (2003)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wei, C.C., Chien, C.F., Wang, M.J.: An AHP-based approach to ERP system selection. Int. J. Prod. Econ. 96(1), 47–62 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Yingie, J.: Critical success factors in ERP implementation in Finland. Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, Finland, pp. 5–6 (2005)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Zhang, L., Zhang, Z., Banerjee, P.: Critical Success Factors of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems Implementation Success in China, 36th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE (2002)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Asmamaw A. Mengistie
    • 1
  • Dennis P. Heaton
    • 2
  • Maxwell Rainforth
    • 2
  1. 1.The MIL CorpMarylandUSA
  2. 2.Maharishi University of ManagementFairfieldUnited States of America

Personalised recommendations