Applications of Sliding Observers for FDI in Aerospace Systems

  • Christopher Edwards
  • Halim Alwi
  • Prathyush P. Menon
Part of the Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences book series (LNCIS, volume 440)


This chapter presents applications of second order sliding mode observer schemes to three different aerospace problems. Two relate to ADDSAFE aircraft fault detection benchmark problems. Firstly, the detection and isolation problem associated with an actuator jam/runaway is considered and secondly an actuator oscillatory failure case is tackled. For the actuator jam/runaway scenario the actuator deflection becomes decoupled from the demand issued from the flight control computer and either remains fixed at some uncommanded point or ‘runs away’ to an extreme value. For the OFC problem, the reconstruction scheme requires an estimate of rod speed provided by a second order sliding mode observer. Ideally low gains in the observer are required because of the noisy environment associated with the physical system. An adaption scheme is therefore required to retain sliding in the presence of severe faults. A problem associated with fault detection in a formation flying scenario, associated with satellites is also discussed. This application to a relative degree two problem would be difficult to solve using linear observer methods.


Fault Detection Hydraulic Actuator Actuator Fault Slide Mode Observer Satellite Formation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Alwi, H., Edwards, C.: Fault detection and fault-tolerant control of a civil aircraft using a sliding-mode-based scheme. IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology 16(3), 499–510 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alwi, H., Edwards, C.: Oscillatory failure case detection for aircraft using an adaptive sliding mode differentiator scheme. In: American Control Conference, San Francisco, California, USA (2011)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Besch, H.M., Giesseler, H.G., Schuller, J.: Impact of electronic flight control system (EFCS) failure cases on structural design loads. Agard report 815, loads and requirements for military aircraft (1996)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dávila, A., Moreno, J.A., Fridman, L.: Variable Gains Super-Twisting Algorithm: A Lyapunov Based Design. In: IEEE American Control Conference, pp. 968–973 (2010)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    de Jager, B.: Comparison of methods to eliminate chattering and avoid steady state errors in sliding mode digital control. In: Proceedings of the IEEE VSC and Lyapunov Workshop, Sheffield, pp. 37–42 (1992)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Edwards, C., Spurgeon, S.K., Patton, R.J.: Sliding mode observers for fault detection. Automatica 36, 541–553 (2000)MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fridman, L., Davila, J., Levant, A.: Second-order sliding modes observer for mechanical systems. IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 50, 1785–1789 (2005)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fridman, L., Davila, J., Levant, A.: High-order sliding-mode observation and fault detection. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Decision and Control, New Orleans, U.S.A., pp. 4317–4322 (2007)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fridman, L., Levant, A.: Higher order sliding modes. In: Perruquetti, W., Barbot, J.P. (eds.) Sliding Mode Control in Engineering, pp. 53–96. Marcel Dekker, New York (2002)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Goupil, P.: Oscillatory failure case detection in the A380 electrical flight control system by analytical redundancy. Control Engineering Practice 18(9), 1110–1119 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Goupil, P., Marcos, A.: Advanced diagnosis for sustainable flight guidance and control: The european addsafe project. SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-2804 (2011)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Goupil, P., Puyou, G.: A high fidelity AIRBUS benchmark for system fault detection and isolation and flight control law clearance. In: European Conference for AeroSpace Sciences (EUCASS 2011) (2011)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hecker, S.: Nominal and faulty LFT/LPV models. ADDSAFE report D1.3.2-3, DLR (2010)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hermans, F.J.J., Zarrop, M.B.: Sliding mode observers for robust sensor monitoring. In: Proceedings of the 13th IFAC World Congress, pp. 211–216 (1996)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jiang, B., Staroswiecki, M., Cocquempot, V.: Fault estimation in nonlinear uncertain systems using robust sliding–mode observers. IEE Proceedings: Control Theory & Applications 151, 29–37 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kim, Y.W., Rizzoni, G., Utkin, V.: Developing a fault tolerant power train system by integrating the design of control and diagnostics. International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control 11, 1095–1114 (2001)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Levant, A.: Higher-order sliding modes, differentiation and output-feedback control. International Journal of Control 76(9-10), 924–941 (2003)MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Luo, N.S., Feng, C.B.: A new method for suppressing chattering in variable structure feedback control systems. In: Nonlinear Control Systems Design: Science Papers of the IFAC Symposium, pp. 279–284. Pergamon, Oxford (1989)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Marcos, A.: Advanced fault diagnosis for sustainable flight guidance and control. In: 6th European Aeronautics Days, AERODAYS, Madrid, Spain (2011)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Massey, T., Shtessel, Y.: Continuous traditional and high order sliding modes for satelite formation control. AIAA Journal of Guidance Control and Dynamics 28(4), 826–831 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Moreno, J.A., Osorio, M.: A Lyapunov approach to second-order sliding mode controllers and observers. In: 47th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, pp. 2856–2861 (2008)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tan, C.P., Edwards, C.: Sliding mode observers for robust detection and reconstruction of actuator and sensor faults. International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control 13, 443–463 (2003)MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Utkin, V.I.: Sliding Modes in Control Optimization. Springer, Berlin (1992)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yang, H., Saif, M.: Fault detection in a class of nonlinear systems via adaptive sliding observer. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, pp. 2199–2204 (1995)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yeh, H.H., Nelson, E., Sparks, A.: Nonlinear tracking control for satellite formations. AIAA Journal of Guidance Control and Dynamics 25(2), 376–386 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Young, K.K.D., Drakunov, S.V.: Sliding mode control with chattering reduction. In: Proceedings of the IEEE VSC and Lyapunov Workshop, pp. 188–190 (1992)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher Edwards
    • 1
  • Halim Alwi
    • 2
  • Prathyush P. Menon
    • 3
  1. 1.Center for Systems, Dynamics and Control, CEMPSUniversity of ExeterExeterUK
  2. 2.Control and Instrumentation Group, Department of EngineeringUniversity of LeicesterLeicesterUK
  3. 3.Center for Systems, Dynamics and Control, Mathematical Research InstituteUniversity of ExeterExeterUK

Personalised recommendations