Polynomial Approximation of the Battery Discharge Function in IEEE 802.15.4 Nodes: Case Study of MicaZ

  • Odilson T. Valle
  • A. Milack
  • C. Montez
  • Paulo Portugal
  • Francisco Vasques
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 206)


An important feature for the design of algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks is the estimation of its lifetime. To design communication protocols and data collection algorithms with low power consumption, a key factor is the ability to measure the actual consumption in the sensor node. This ability enables the verification of theoretical/simulated models, allowing an accurate estimation of the network longevity. This paper proposes a system for measuring the energy consumption levels of sensor nodes in normal operation, allowing the estimation of the real lifetime for each node, enabling the optimization of energy aware protocols. Presented data is related to the energy consumption of a MicaZ node and to the behavior of the full discharge of a battery pack. A set of polynomial functions describing this energy discharge are also presented that can be easily inserted into the battery models of network simulators to obtain a more realistic behavior.


Wireless Sensor Networks Energy Measurement IEEE 802.15.4 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Yoneki, E., Bacon, J.: A survey of Wireless Sensor Network technologies: research trends and middleware’s role, Cambridge (2005)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sharma, A.B., Golubchik, L., Govindan, R.: Sensor Faults: Detection Methods and Prevalence in Real-World Datasets. ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks 6(3), 1–39 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gungor, V., Hancke, G.: Industrial wireless sensor networks: challenges, design principles, and technical approaches. IEEE Transactions on Industrial 56(10), 4258–4265 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zurawski, R.: Embedded Systems Handbook: Networked Embedded Systems, 2nd edn. Taylor & Francis, San Francisco (2009)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    IEEE, IEEE 802.15.4 - IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks - Part 15.4: Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs), New York, vol. 2011, p. 314 (September 2011) Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Crossbow, MicaZ Sensor Node,, (accessed in June 12, 2012)
  7. 7.
    Semiconductors, Z.: ZXCT1022 DataSheet, (accessed in June 12, 2012)
  8. 8.
    Karl, H., Willig, A.: Protocols and architectures for wireless sensor networks, p. 497. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (2007)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pinto, A.R., Montez, C.: Decentralized Power Aware Approach for Data Fusion in IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks. In: 2012 Second Brazilian Conference on Critical Embedded Systems, pp. 64–69 (May 2012)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hergenroder, A., Wilke, J., Meier, D.: Distributed Energy Measurements in WSN Testbeds with a Sensor Node Management Device (SNMD). In: 2010 23rd International Conference on Architecture of Computing Systems (ARCS), pp. 1–7 (2010)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chang, C.-C., Nagel, D.J., Muftic, S.: Assessment of Energy Consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Case Study for Security Algorithms. In: 2007 IEEE International Conference on Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems, pp. 1–6 (October 2007)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Krämer, M., Geraldy, A.: Energy measurements for micaz node. GI/ITG KuVS Fachgesprch Drahtlose Sensornetze, 61–68 (2006)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rakhmatov, D., Vrudhula, S., Wallach, D.A.: A model for battery lifetime analysis for organizing applications on a pocket computer. IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems 11(6), 1019–1030 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Odilson T. Valle
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. Milack
    • 2
  • C. Montez
    • 2
    • 4
  • Paulo Portugal
    • 3
  • Francisco Vasques
    • 4
  1. 1.IFSC, Federal Institute of Santa CatarinaFlorianópolisBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Control and AutomationUFSC, Federal University of Santa CatarinaFlorianópolisBrazil
  3. 3.ISRUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal
  4. 4.IDMEC, FEUPUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal

Personalised recommendations