The Basics of the ISEs

  • Konstantin N. MikhelsonEmail author
Part of the Lecture Notes in Chemistry book series (LNC, volume 81)


In this chapter, we will discuss the formalism of the practically relevant representation of the signals obtained from an “ideal” electrode. We will do this using a macroscopic, thermodynamic approach. We will not go into the microscopic details on why and when the electrodes respond in this particular way, leaving this discussion, and also the discussion of the “real-world electrodes”, which are not that ideal, for subsequent chapters.


Activity Coefficient Diffusion Layer Salt Bridge Transference Number Diffusion Potential 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    K.N. Mikhelson, J. Bobacka, A. Ivaska, A. Lewenstam, M. Bochenska, Anal. Chem., 2002, 74, 518.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    K.N. Mikhelson, A.L. Smirnova, Sens. Actuators B, 1992, 10, 47.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    K.N. Mikhelson, Sens. Actuators B, 1994, 18, 31.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. Sokalski, A. Lewenstam, Electrochem. Commun. 2001, 3, 107.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    T. Sokalski, P. Lingenfelter, A. Lewenstam, J. Phys. Chem., 2003, 107, 2443.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Bobacka, A. Ivaska, A. Lewenstam, Chem. Rev., 2008, 108, 329.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J.J. Jasielec, R. Filipek, K. Szyszkiewicz, J. Fausek, M. Danielewski, A. Lewenstam, 2012, in press. (Full reference will be provided later).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    K.N. Mikhelson, A. Lewenstam, S.E. Didina, Electroanalysis, 1999, 11, 793.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    W. Kucza, M. Danielewski, A. Lewenstam, Electrochem. Commun., 2006, 8, 416.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    P. Lingenfelter, I. Bedlechowicz-Sliwakowska, T. Sokalski, M. Maj-Zurawska, A. Lewenstam, Anal. Chem., 2006, 78, 6783.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    T. Sokalski, W. Kucza, M. Danielewski, A. Lewenstam, Anal. Chem., 2009, 81, 5016.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. Michalska, Electroanalysis, 2012, 24, 1253.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    G. Scatchard, J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 1953, 75, 2883.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. Dvorak, J. Koryta, V. Bohackova, Elektrochemie, 1975, Academia, Praha.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ion-Selective Electrode LaboratorySt. Petersburg State UniversitySt. PetersburgRussia

Personalised recommendations