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10 New Insights into Ectomycorrhizal Symbiosis Evolution and Function

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Agricultural Applications

Part of the book series: The Mycota ((MYCOTA,volume 11))

Abstract

Boreal and temperate forest ecosystems rely on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis for tree nutrition, productivity, and stress resilience. The ECM lifestyle appears several times during fungal evolution. In this chapter, we will consider how comparative genomics has changed and specified our understanding of the evolution of the ECM symbiosis lifestyle within the fungal kingdom and the rhizospheric zoo. During development of ECM symbiosis, only a few plant defense responses are triggered. In this chapter, we will consider which strategies (molecules, factors) ECM fungi developed in order to avoid plant immune system detection. We will in particular highlight the roles of cell wall remodeling enzymes and symbiosis effectors displaying similarities to those of plant pathogens. Understanding of the biology of ectomycorrhizal fungi is important to inform models of sustainable forest management and to improve the productivity of tree plantations in marginal soils. Thus, the chapter will conclude with eco-biotechnological applications of ECM symbiosis in forestry and bioremediation.

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Acknowledgements

We would like to thank all members of the “Ecogenomics of Interactions” team for their support and discussions. A special thanks to François Le Tacon and Jean Garbaye for the shared long experience on the use of ECM fungi in forestry. Experiments carried out in the laboratory are supported by grants from INRA, Université de Lorraine, ANR project TRANSMUT, DOE Oak Ridge National Laboratory through the “Plant-Microbes Interfaces” project, and the Laboratory of Excellence (LABEX) ARBRE.

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Veneault-Fourrey, C., Martin, F. (2013). 10 New Insights into Ectomycorrhizal Symbiosis Evolution and Function. In: Kempken, F. (eds) Agricultural Applications. The Mycota, vol 11. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-36821-9_10

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