A Review of Performance Variations in SMR-Based Brain−Computer Interfaces (BCIs)

  • Moritz Grosse-WentrupEmail author
  • Bernhard Schölkopf
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering book series (BRIEFSELECTRIC)


The ability to operate a brain-computer interface (BCI) varies not only across subjects but also across time within each individual subject. In this article, we review recent progress in understanding the origins of such variations for BCIs based on the sensorimotor-rhythm (SMR). We propose a classification of studies according to four categories, and argue that an investigation of the neuro-physiological correlates of within-subject variations is likely to have a large impact on the design of future BCIs. We place a special emphasis on our own work on the neuro-physiological causes of performance variations, and argue that attentional networks in the gamma-range (\({>}40\) Hz) are likely to play a critical role in this context. We conclude the review with a discussion of outstanding problems.


Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Classification Accuracy Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patient Attentional Network Range Oscillation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department Empirical InferenceMax Planck Institute for Intelligent SystemsTübingenGermany

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