Today’s Pagan: Conservation Under the Generals

Chapter
Part of the Transcultural Research – Heidelberg Studies on Asia and Europe in a Global Context book series (TRANSCULT)

Abstract

Since 1995, reconstruction of the eleventh to thirteenth-century city of Pagan has been carried out on a large scale. Under the orders of the military regime, in spite of missing evidence for their original appearance, some 2,000 brick monuments have been completely or partially rebuilt over the exposed foundations of the ancient ones. Funded by public donations within Burma and by monetary contributions from Buddhist associations abroad, this activity—widely criticized by the international community—should also be considered within the context of the Burmese religious perspective.

Keywords

Pagan Cultural heritage Conservation Reconstruction Archaeology 

References

  1. Department of Archaeology. 2001. Bagan Ancient Mounds as Original Monuments: Record of Reconstruction and Renovation. Rangoon: Ministry of Culture (in Burmese).Google Scholar
  2. Houtman, Gustaaf. 1999. Mental Culture in Burmese Crisis Politics. Aung San Suu Kyi and the National League for Democracy. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.Google Scholar
  3. Hudson, Bob. 2008. “Restoration and Reconstruction of Monuments at Bagan (Pagan), Myanmar (Burma), 1995–2008”. World Archaeology 40(4): 553–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ishizawa, Yoshiaki, and Yashushi Kono (eds.). 1989. Cultural Heritage of Asia (4)—Study of Pagan. Tokyo: Sophia University.Google Scholar
  5. Pichard, Pierre. 1976. The Conservation of Pagan (Burma). Paris: UNESCO Courier.Google Scholar
  6. Pichard, Pierre. 1992. The Conservation of Monuments in Pagan: Myanmar. Assignment Report. Paris: UNESCO Courier.Google Scholar
  7. Pichard, Pierre. 1992–2001. Inventory of Monuments at Pagan, vols. 1–8. Paris: UNESCO EFEO Kiscadale.Google Scholar
  8. Pichard, Pierre. 2012. BAGAN—Condition of the Site and Monuments, September 2012 (internal document). Bangkok: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  9. Rozenberg, Guillaume. 2005. Renoncement et puissance—La quête de la sainteté dans la Birmanie contemporaine. Geneva: Olizane.Google Scholar
  10. Rozenberg, Guillaume. 2009. “How ‘The Generals’ Think—Gustaaf Housman and the Enigma of the Burmese Military Regime”. Aséanie 24: 11–31.Google Scholar
  11. Stadtner, Donald. 2005. Ancient Pagan. Buddhist Plain of Merit. Bangkok: River Books.Google Scholar
  12. Than Tun, U. 1998. “An Original Inscription Dated 10 September 1223 That King Badon Copied on 27 October 1785”. In Études birmanes, ed. Pierre Pichard and François Robinne, 37–55. Paris: EFEO.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ecole française d’Extrême-OrientBangkokThailand

Personalised recommendations