Advertisement

Abstract

One of the reasons that future robots will enhance their intelligence and actions in an unstructured environment is because of their “networked” feature. Current robot designs have difficulty in understanding unstructured environments due to the inherent diversity and unpredictability of phenomena in the real world. However, new developments such as ubiquitous computing, cloud computing, the Internet of things and next-generation internet technologies will make it easier for networked robots to obtain structured information about their physical environment. The formation of cloud-enabled robotics by advanced technology will be tightly integrated into the virtual and real world, and this will strengthen the impact of cyberspace to the real world. Although these developments may help reduce Open-Texture Risk from the networked robots, risk will be transferred from the physical world into the virtual world. In this paper, we will try to address some of the resulting legal implications. This paper is divided into four parts, the first part defines the meaning of cloud-enabled robotics; the second part analyzes how the Collective Dynamics derived from virtual and real world with autonomous behaviors by intelligent robots affect Open-Texture Risk to expand a Larger Range and bring a Deeper Impact; the third part explains the dispute of legal issues in future technology of cloud-enabled robotics; the final part analyzes the Safety Intelligence of cloud-enabled robotics in a long-term perspective, and the theoretical control framework that we propose in solving Open-Texture Risk.

Keywords

Networked Robotics Liability Robot Safety Law & Robotics 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Kim, B.K., et al.: Networked Robots in the Informative Spaces. In: International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems (ICCAS), Busan, Korea, pp. 714–719 (2005)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cerf, V.G.: The Disruptive Power of Networks. Forbes Asia, 76–77 (May 7, 2007)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Christensen, H.I.: EURON - the European Robotics Network. IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine 12(2), 10–13 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mckee, G.: What is Networked Robots? In: Informatics in Control Automation and Robotics, Part I. LNEE, vol. 15, pp. 35–45 (2006)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mohamed, N., Al-Jaroodi, J., Jawhar, I.: A Review of Middleware for Networked Robots. IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security 9(5) (2009)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ahronovitz, M., et al.: Cloud Computing Use Cases White Paper - Version 4.0. Cloud Computing Use Case Discussion Group (2010)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zweigle, O., Molenraft, R., d’Andrea, R., Haussermann, K.: Roboearth – Connecting Robots Worldwide. In: International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Seoul, Korea, November 24-26 (2009)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guizzo, E.: Cloud Robotics: Connected to the Cloud, Robots Get Smarter. IEEE Spectrum (2011), http://spectrum.ieee.org/automaton/robotics/robotics-software/cloud-robotics
  9. 9.
    Sato, T.: Moving Object Sensor Technology for Security and Safety. CREST Annual Research Report, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (2007)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Weiser, M., Gold, R., Brown, J.S.: The Origins of Ubiquitous Computing Research at PARC in the late 1980s. IBM Systems Journal 38(4), 693 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zittrian, J.L.: The Future of the Internet –and How to Stop It. Yale University Press, New Haven (2008)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Goldberg, K.: The Robot in the Garden. MIT Press, Cambridge (2000)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Salvini, P., et al.: An Investigation on Legal Regulations for Robot Deployment in Urban Areas: A Focus on Italian Law. Advanced Robotics 24(13), 1901–1917 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Weng, Y.H., Chen, C.H., Sun, C.T.: The Legal Crisis of Next Generation Robots: On Safety Intelligence. In: ACM 11th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law (ICAIL), Palo Alto, CA, USA, June 4-8, pp. 205–209 (2007)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Weng, Y.H., Chen, C.H., Sun, C.T.: Toward the Human-Robot Co-Existence Society: On Safety Intelligence for Next Generation Robots. International Journal of Social Robotics 1(4), 267–282 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Japan Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication: ICT Policy Outline, pp. 11–15 (2008)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Korea Ministry of Information and Communication: uIT 839 Policy Outline (2006)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kim, J.H., et al.: Ubiquitous Robot: A New Paradigm for Integrated Services. In: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (IEEE ICRA), Roma, Italy, April 10-14 (2007)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sanfeliu, A., et al.: Influence of the Privacy Issue in the Deployment and Design of Networking Robots in European Urban Areas. Advanced Robotics 24(13), 1873–1899 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Calo, M.R.: Open Robotics. Maryland Law Review 70(3) (2011)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Weng, Y.H.: Networked Robots: A Brief Look at Its Possible Legal Implications. In: 4th Workshop on Roboethics, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (IEEE ICRA), Shanghai, China, May 9-13 (2011)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mell, P., Crance, T.: The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing - Version 15. National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA (2009)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Japan Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry: Next-Generation Robot Safety Guideline (2007)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sartor, G.: Cognitive Automata and the Law: Electronic Contracting and the Intentionality of Software Agents. Artificial Intelligence and Law 17(4), 253–290 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lillington, K.: So Robots are Social Animals After All. Irish Times (2008), http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/finance/2008/1128/1227739081265.html
  26. 26.
    Salvini, P., et al.: How Safe are Service Robots in Urban Environments? Bullying a Robot. In: IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Interaction (RO-MAN), Viareggio, Italy (2010)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dodig-Crnkovic, G., Curuklu, B.: Robots: Ethical by Design. Ethics and Information Technology (2011), doi:10.1007/s10676-011-9278-2Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Haddadin, S., et al.: Towards the Robotic Co-Worker. Springer Tract in Advanced Robotics, vol. 70 (2011)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Arkin, R.C.: Governing Lethal Behavior: Embedding Ethics in a Hybrid Deliberative/Reactive Robot Architecture. In: HRI 2008: Proceedings of the 3rd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (2008)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pagallo, U.: Robots of Justwar: A Legal Perspective. Philosophy and Technology 24(3) (2011)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yueh-Hsuan Weng
    • 1
  • Sophie Ting Hong Zhao
    • 1
  1. 1.Peking University Law SchoolBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations