Use of Wetland Plants in Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals

  • Soumya ChatterjeeEmail author
  • Sibnarayan Datta
  • Priyanka Halder Mallick
  • Anindita Mitra
  • Vijay Veer
  • Subhra Kumar Mukhopadhyay
Part of the Soil Biology book series (SOILBIOL, volume 35)


Heavy metal pollution due to anthropogenic activities like mining, smelting, untreated waste disposal and dumping, and pesticides and fertilizers application is becoming a major global concern. Once released into the environment, heavy metals find their way into aquatic systems contaminating water bodies and its associated life forms. Wetlands are most vulnerable in this process as they are usually low lands in comparison to the surroundings. Conventional methods of mitigating metal contamination in soils and water like extraction, immobilization, and toxicity reduction, physical barrier, chemical stabilization, electro kinetic processes, soil washing, and pump-and-treat systems are prohibitively expensive, energy intensive, and can reduce the fertility and bioactivity of soils. Natural wetland systems along with its native flora have the capacity to improve water quality by filtering pollutants from water that flows through on its way to receiving water bodies. Many of the wetland plants have the capability to mobilize and uptake the metals at rhizosphere, where microbial association and symbiosis play an important role in the accumulation of metals. This chapter tried to encompass the role of wetland plants and their selection related to natural restoration of contaminated sites through economic, aesthetically pleasing phytoremediation technology.


Heavy Metal Water Hyacinth Wetland Plant Bermuda Grass Helianthus Annuus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Authors wish to convey thanks and appreciation to Mrs. Swagata Chatterjee for the illustration (both Figs. 7.1 and 7.2) in the chapter.


  1. Akerblom S, Baath E, Bringmark L, Bringmark E (2007) Experimentally induced effects of heavy metal on microbial activity and community structure of forest mor layers. Biol Fertil Soils 44:79–91Google Scholar
  2. Baath E (1989) Effects of heavy metals in soil on microbial processes and populations. Water Air Soil Pollut 47:335–379Google Scholar
  3. Baath E, Diaz-Ravina M, Bakken LR (2005) Microbial biomass, community structure and metal tolerance of a naturally Pb-enriched forest soil. Microb Ecol 50:496–505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker AJM, Brooks RR (1989) Terrestrial higher plants which hyperaccumulate metallic elements – a review of their distribution, ecology and phytochemistry. Biorecovery 1:81–126Google Scholar
  5. Bamborough L, Cummings SP (2009) The impact of increasing heavy metal stress on the diversity and structure of the bacterial and actinobacterial communities of metallophytic grassland soil. Biol Fertil Soils 45:273–280Google Scholar
  6. Barker WW, Banfield JF (1998) Zones of chemical and physical interaction at interfaces between microbial communities and minerals: a model. Geomicrobiol J 15:223–244Google Scholar
  7. Barron MG (2003) Bioaccumulation and bioconcentration in aquatic organisms. In: Hoffman DJ, Rattner BA, Burton GA Jr, Cairns J Jr (eds) Handbook of ecotoxicology, 2nd edn. Lewis, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  8. Becerra-Castro C, Monterroso C, García-Lestón M, Prieto-Fernández A, Acea MJ, Kidd PS (2009) Rhizosphere microbial densities and trace metal tolerance of the nickel hyperaccumulator Alyssum serpyllifolium subsp. lusitanicum. Int J Phytoremediation 11:525–541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bentley R, Chasteen TG (2002) Microbial methylation of metalloids: arsenic, antimony and bismuth. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 66:250–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bertrand M, Poirier I (2005) Photosynthetic organisms and excess of metals. Photosynthetica 43: 345–353Google Scholar
  11. Brim H, McFarlan SC, Fredrickson JK, Minton KW, Zhai M, Wackett LP, Daly MJ (2000) Engineering Deinococcus radiodurans for metal remediation in radioactive mixed waste environments. Nat Biotechnol 18:85–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Brooks RR, Chambers MF, Nicks LJ, Robinson BH (1998) Phytomining. Trends Plant Sci 3: 359–362Google Scholar
  13. Bruins MR, Kapil S, Oehme FW (2000) Microbial resistance to metals in the environment. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 45:198–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bryan GW, Langston WJ (1992) Bioavailability, accumulation and effects of heavy metals in sediments with special reference to United Kingdom estuaries: a review. Environ Pollut 76:89–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Burken J, Vroblesky D, Balouet JC (2011) Phytoforensics, dendrochemistry, and phytoscreening: new green tools for delineating contaminants from past and present. Environ Sci Technol 45: 6218–6226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Calvaruso C, Turpault MP, Frey-Klett P (2006) Root-associated bacteria contribute to mineral weathering and to mineral nutrition in trees: a budgeting analysis. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:1258–1266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Carbonell-Barrachina MA, Aarabi MA, DeLaune RD, Gambrell RP, Patrick WH Jr (1998) The influence of arsenic chemical form and concentration on Spartina patens and Spartina lterniflora growth and tissue arsenic concentration. Plant Soil 198:33–43Google Scholar
  18. CERCLA (2007) Priority list of hazardous substances. Accessed 30 Aug 2012
  19. Chander K, Brookes PC (1993) Residual effects of zinc, copper and nickel in sewage sludge on microbial biomass in a sandy loam. Soil Biol Biochem 25:1231–1239Google Scholar
  20. Chander K, Dyckmans J, Hoeper H, Joergensen RG, Raubuch M (2001) Long term effects on soil microbial properties of heavy metals from industrial exhaust deposition. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 164:657–663Google Scholar
  21. Chatterjee S, Chattopadhyay B, Mukhopadhyay SK (2007) Sequestration and localization of metals in two common wetland plants of contaminated east Calcutta wetlands: a Ramsar Site in India. Land Contam Reclam 15:437–452Google Scholar
  22. Chatterjee S, Chattopadhyay B, Mukhopadhyay SK (2010) Monitoring waste metal pollution at Ganga estuary via the east Calcutta wetland areas. Environ Monit Assess 170:23–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Chatterjee S, Chetia M, Singh L, Chattopadhyay B, Datta S, Mukhopadhyay SK (2011) A study on the phytoaccumulation of waste elements in wetland plants of a Ramsar site in India. Environ Monit Assess 178:361–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Chatterjee S, Singh L, Chattopadhyay B, Datta S, Mukhopadhyay SK (2012) A study on the waste metal remediation using floriculture at east Calcutta wetlands, a Ramsar site in India. Environ Monit Assess 184:5139–5150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Chetia M, Chatterjee S, Banerjee S, Nath MJ, Singh L, Srivastava RB, Sarma HP (2011) Groundwater arsenic contamination in Brahmaputra river basin: a water quality assessment in Golaghat (Assam), India. Environ Monit Assess 173:371–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Choi D, Kim HM, Yun HK, Park JA, Kim WT, Bok SH (1996) Molecular cloning of a metallothionein-like gene from Nicotiana glutinosa L. and its induction by wounding and tobacco mosaic virus infection. Plant Physiol 112:353–359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cho MC, Kang D-O, Yoon BD, Lee K (2000) Toluene degradation pathway from Pseudomonas putida F1: substrate specificity and gene induction by 1-substituted benzenes. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 25:163–170Google Scholar
  28. Clemens S, Kim EJ, Neumann D, Schroeder JI (1999) Tolerance to toxic metals by a gene family of phytochelatin synthases from plants and yeast. EMBO J 18:3325–3333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cloutier-Hurteau B, Sauve S, Courchesne F (2008) Influence of microorganisms on Cu speciation in the rhizosphere of forest soils. Soil Biol Biochem 40:2441–2451Google Scholar
  30. Cobbett CS (2000) Phytochelatins and their role in heavy metal detoxification. Plant Physiol 123: 825–833PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cobbett C, Goldsbrough P (2002) Phytochelatins and metallothioneins: roles in heavy metal detoxification and homeostasis. Annu Rev Plant Biol 53:159–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Cozzarelli IM, Bekins BA, Eganhouse RP, Warren E, Essaid HI (2010) In situ measurements of volatile aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation rates in groundwater. J Contam Hydrol 111: 48–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Curtis CR, Duke JA (1982) An assessment of land biomass and energy potential for the republic of panama, vol 3. Institute of Energy Conversion, University of Delaware, Newark, DEGoogle Scholar
  34. de Groot R, Stuip M, Finlayson M, and Davidson N (2006) Valuing wetlands: guidance for valuing the benefits derived from wetland ecosystem services. Ramsar Technical Report No. 3, CBD Technical Series No. 27. Ramsar Convention Secretariat, Gland, Switzerland. Accessed 30 Aug 2012
  35. De Lacerda LD, Carvalho C, Tanizaki K, Ovalle A, Rezende C (1993) The biogeochemistry and trace metals distribution of mangrove rhizospheres. Biotropica 25:252–257Google Scholar
  36. de Souza MP, Chu D, Zhao M, Zayed AM, Ruzin SE, Schichnes D, Terry N (1999) Rhizosphere bacteria enhance selenium accumulation and volatilization by Indian mustard. Plant Physiol 119(2):565–574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Delorme TA, Gagliardi JV, Angle JS, Chaney RL (2001) Influence of the zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens J. and C. Presl. and the non-metal accumulator Trifolium pratense L. on soil microbial populations. Can J Microbiol 47:773–776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Dhankher OP, Li Y, Rosen BP, Shi J, Salt D, Senecoff JF, Sashti NA, Meagher RB (2002) Engineered tolerance and hyperaccumulation of arsenic in plants by combining arsenate reductase and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase expression. Nat Biotechnol 20:1140–1145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Doucleff M, Terry N (2002) Pumping out the arsenic. Nat Biotechnol 20:1094–1095PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Doyle MO, Otte ML (1997) Organism-induced accumulation of iron, zinc and arsenic in wetland soils. Environ Pollut 96:1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Duruibe JO, Ogwuegbu MOC, Egwurugwu JN (2007) Heavy metal pollution and human biotoxic effects. Int J Phys Sci 2:112–118Google Scholar
  42. Earthworks and mining watch Canada, February (2012) TROUBLED WATERS- HOW mine waste dumping is poisoning our oceans, rivers, and lakes. Accessed 30 Aug 2012
  43. Espinoza-Quinones FR, Módenes AN, Costa IL Jr, Palácio SM, Szymanski N, Trigueros DEG, Kroumov AD, Silva EA (2009) Kinetics of lead bioaccumulation from a hydroponic medium by aquatic macrophytes Pistia stratiotes. Water Air Soil Pollut 203:29–37Google Scholar
  44. Farwell AJ, Vesely S, Nero V, Rodriguez H, Shah S, Dixon DG, Glick BR (2006) The use of transgenic canola (B. napus) and plant growth-promoting bacteria to enhance plant biomass at a nickel-contaminated field site. Plant Soil 288:309–318Google Scholar
  45. Gahoonia TS, Care D, Nielsen NE (1997) Root hairs and phosphorus acquisition of wheat and barley cultivars. Plant Soil 191:181–188Google Scholar
  46. Gamalero E, Martinotti MG, Trotta A, Lemanceau P, Berta G (2002) Morphogenetic modifications induced by Pseudomonas fluorescens A6RI and Glomus mosseae BEG12 in the root system of tomato differ according to plant growth conditions. New Phytol 155: 293–300Google Scholar
  47. Gambrell R (1994) Trace and toxic metals in wetlands—a review. J Environ Qual 23:883–891Google Scholar
  48. Garbisu C, Hernandez-Allica J, Barrutia O, Alkorta I, Becerril JM (2002) Phytoremediation: a technology using green plants to remove contaminants from polluted areas. Rev Environ Health 17:173–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Ghosh M, Singh SP (2005) A review on phytoremediation of heavy metals and utilization of its by-products. Appl Ecol Environ Res 3:1–18Google Scholar
  50. Gillam EMJ (2008) Engineering cytochrome P450 enzymes. Chem Res Toxicol 21:220–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Giller KE, Witter E, McGrath SP (1998) Toxicity of heavy metals to microorganisms and microbial processes in agricultural soils: a review. Soil Biol Biochem 30:1389–1414Google Scholar
  52. Gleba D, Borisjuk NV, Borisjuk LG, Kneer R, Poulev A, Skarzhinskaya M, Dushenkov S, Logendra S, Gleba YY, Raskin I (1999) Use of plant roots for phytoremediation and molecular farming. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:5973–5977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Glick BR (2004) Teamwork in phytoremediation. Nat Biotechnol 22:526–527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Herawati N, Susuki S, Hayashi K, Rivai IF, Koyama H (2000) Cadmium, copper and zinc levels in rice and soil of Japan, Indonesia and China by soil type. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 64:33–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hutton M, Symon C (1986) The quantities of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic entering the U.K. environment from human activities. Sci Total Environ 57:129–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. INSA, A Position Paper (2011) Hazardous metals and minerals pollution in India. Accessed 30 Aug 2012
  57. Jung MC (2008) Heavy metal concentrations in soils and factors affecting metal uptake by plants in the vicinity of a Korean Cu-W Mine. Sensors 8:2413–2423Google Scholar
  58. Kadlec RH, Knight RI (1996) Treatment wetlands. CRC, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  59. Kalay M, Canli M (2000) Elimination of essential (Cu, Zn) and non-essential (Cd, Pb) metals from tissues of a freshwater fish Tilapia zilli. Turk J Zool 24:429–436Google Scholar
  60. Kavamura VN, Esposito E (2010) Biotechnological strategies applied to the decontamination of soils polluted with heavy metals. Biotechnol Adv 28:61–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Ke HY, Sun JG, Feng XZ, Czako M, Marton L (2001) Differential mercury volatilization by tobacco organs expressing a modified bacterial merA gene. Cell Res 11:231–236Google Scholar
  62. Khan AG, Kuek C, Chaudhry TM, Koo CS, Hayes W (2000) Role of plants, mycorrhizae and phytochelators in heavy metal contaminated land remediation. Chemosphere 41:197–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Kidd P, Barceló J, Bernal MP, Navari-Izzo F, Poschenrieder C, Shilev S, Clemente R, Monterroso C (2009) Trace element behaviour at the root–soil interface: implications in phytoremediation. Environ Exp Bot 67:243–259Google Scholar
  64. Korda A, Santas P, Tenente A, Santas R (1997) Petroleum hydrocarbon bioremediation: sampling and analytical techniques, in situ treatments and commercial microorganisms currently used. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 48:677–689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Kuffner M, Puschenreiter M, Wieshammer G, Gorfer M, Sessitsch A (2008) Rhizosphere bacteria affect growth and metal uptake of heavy metal accumulating willows. Plant Soil 304:35–44Google Scholar
  66. Lakatos G, Kiss M, Mezzaros I (1999) Heavy metal content of common reed (Phragmites australis/Cav./Trin. ex Steudel) and its periphyton in Hungarian shallow standing waters. Hydrobiologia 415:47–53Google Scholar
  67. Landmeyer JE (2011) Introduction to phytoremediation of contaminated groundwater. Springer, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  68. Landmeyer JE, Bradley PM, Trego DA, Hale KG, Haas JE (2010) MTBE, TBA, and TAME attenuation in diverse hyporheic zones. Ground Water 48:30–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Lasat MM (2000) Phytoextraction of metals from contaminated soil: a review of plant/soil/metal interaction and assessment of pertinent agronomic issues. J Hazard Subst Res 2:5Google Scholar
  70. Lodewyckx C, Mergeay M, Vangronsveld J, Clijsters H, van der Lelie D (2002) Isolation, characterization, and identification of bacteria associated with the zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens subsp. calaminaria. Int J Phytoremediation 4:101–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Lombi E, Zhao FJ, Dunham SJ, McGrath SP (2000) Cadmium accumulation in populations of Thlaspi caerulescens and Thlaspi goesingense. New Phytol 145:11–20Google Scholar
  72. Lovley DR (2003) Cleaning up with genomics: applying molecular biology to bioremediation. Nat Rev Microbiol 1:35–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Lu D, Li G, Valladares GS, Batistella M (2004) Mapping soil erosion risk in Rondonia, Brazilian Amazonia: using rusle, remote sensing and GIS. Land Degrad Dev 15:499–512Google Scholar
  74. McGrath SP, Zhao FJ (2003) Phytoextraction of metals and metalloids from contaminated soils. Curr Opin Biotechnol 14:277–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. McLean JE, Bledsoe BE (1992) Behavior of metals in soils (EPA Ground Water Issue) EPA/540/S-92/018Google Scholar
  76. Meagher RB (2000) Phytoremediation of toxic elemental and organic pollutants. Curr Opin Plant Biol 3:153–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Meharg AA, Cairney JW (2000) Co-evolution of mycorrhizal symbionts and their hosts to metal-contaminated environments. Adv Ecol Res 30:69–112Google Scholar
  78. Mendelssohn IA, Postek MT (1982) Elemental analysis of deposits on the roots of Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Am J Bot 69:904–912Google Scholar
  79. Mengoni A, Barzanti R, Gonnelli C, Gabbrielli R, Bazzicalupo M (2001) Characterization of nickel-resistant bacteria isolated from serpentine soil. Environ Microbiol 3:691–698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Mengoni A, Grassi E, Barzanti R, Biondi EG, Gonnelli C, Kim CK, Bazzicalupo M (2004) Genetic diversity of bacterial communities of serpentine soil and of rhizosphere of the nickel-hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum bertolonii. Microb Ecol 48:209–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Michel C, Jean M, Coulon S, Dictor MC, Delorme F, Morin D, Garrido F (2007) Biofilms of As(III)-oxidising bacteria: formation and activity studies for bioremediation process development. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 77:457–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) Ecosystem and human wellbeing: wetlands and water synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. Accessed 15 Aug 2012
  83. Mitsch WJ, Gosselink JG (2000) Wetlands. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  84. Moorhead KK, Reddy KR (1988) Oxygen transport through selected aquatic macrophytes. J Environ Qual 17:138–142Google Scholar
  85. Morant M, Bak S, Moller BL, Werck-Reichhart D (2003) Plant cytochromes P450: tools for pharmacology, plant protection and phytoremediation. Curr Opin Biotechnol 14:151–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Morris CA, Nicolaus B, Sampson V, Harwood JL, Kille P (1999) Identification and characterization of a recombinant metallothionein protein from a marine alga, Fucus vesiculosus. Biochem J 338:553–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Mulligan CN, Yong RN, Gibbs BF (2001) Remediation technologies for metal contaminated soils and groundwater: an evaluation. Eng Geol 60:193–207Google Scholar
  88. Nath K, Saini S, Sharma YK (2005) Chromium in tannery industry effluent and its effect on plant metabolism and growth. J Environ Biol 26:197–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Nicks LJ, Chambers MF (1998) A pioneering study of the potential of phytomining for nickel. In: Brooks RR (ed) Plants that hyperaccumulate heavy metals. CAB International, Walingford, pp 313–326Google Scholar
  90. Nies DH (1995) The cobalt, zinc, and cadmium efflux system CzcABC from Alcaligenes eutrophus functions as a cation-proton antiporter in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 177:2707–2712PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Nies DH (1999) Microbial heavy-metal resistance. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 51:730–750PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Noctor G, Arisi A, Jouanin L, Kunert K, Rennenberg H, Foyer C (1998) Glutathione: biosynthesis, metabolism and relationship to stress tolerance explored in transformed plants. J Exp Bot 49: 623–647Google Scholar
  93. Nriagu JO (1989) A global assessment of natural sources of atmospheric trace metals. Nature 338:47–49Google Scholar
  94. Nriagu JO, Pacyna J (1988) Quantitative assessment of worldwide contamination of air, water and soils by trace metals. Nature 333:134–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Odum WE (1988) Comparative ecology of tidal freshwater and salt marshes. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 19:147–176Google Scholar
  96. Pal A, Dutta S, Mukherjee PK, Paul AK (2004) Isolation and characterization of nickel-resistant microflora from serpentine soils of Andaman. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 20:881–886Google Scholar
  97. Pardue JH, Patrick WH Jr (1995) Changes in metal speciation following alteration of sediment redox status. In: Allen HE (ed) Metal-contaminated aquatic sediments. Science, Ann Arbor, MIGoogle Scholar
  98. Patten CL, Glick BR (1996) Bacterial biosynthesis on indole-3-acetic acid. Can J Microbiol 42: 207–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Peuke AD, Rennenberg H (2005) Phytoremediation: molecular biology, requirements for application, environmental protection, public attention and feasibility. EMBO Rep 6:497–501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Prasad MNV (2004) Heavy metal stress in plants: from biomolecules to ecosystems. Narosa, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  101. Prasad MVN (2006) Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) - a potential crop for environmental industry. In: 1st International symposium on sunflower industrial uses. Faculty of Agriculture, Udine, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  102. Prasad MVN (2007) Aquatic plants for phytotechnology. In: Singh SN, Tripathi RD (eds) Environmental bioremediation technologies. Springer, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  103. Prasad MNV, Freitas HMO (2003) Metal hyperaccumulation in plants-biodiversity prospecting for phytoremediation technology. Electron J Biotechol 6(3):doi: 10.2225/vol6-issue3-fulltext-6Google Scholar
  104. Prasad MNV, Greger M, Smith BN (2001) Aquatic macrophytes. In: Prasad MNV (ed) Metals in the environment: analysis by biodiversity. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  105. Raab A, Schat H, Meharg AA, Feldmann J (2005) Uptake, translocation and transformation of arsenate and arsenite in sunflower (Helianthus annuus): formation of arsenic-phytochelatin complexes during exposure to high arsenic concentrations. New Phytol 168(3):551–558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Ravit B, Ehrenfeld JG, Haggblom MM (2003) A comparison of sediment microbial communities associated with Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora in two brackish wetlands of New Jersey. Estuaries 26:465–474Google Scholar
  107. Reddy CN, Patrick WH (1977) Effect of redox potential and pH on the uptake of cadmium and lead by rice plants. J Environ Qual 6:259–262Google Scholar
  108. Reed SC (1991) Nationwide inventory: constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Biocycle 32:44–49Google Scholar
  109. Roane TM, Kellogg ST (1996) Characterization of bacterial communities in heavy metal contaminated soils. Can J Microbiol 42:593–603PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Robles-González IV, Fava F, Poggi-Varaldo HM (2008) A review on slurry bioreactors for bioremediation of soils and sediments. Microb Cell Fact 7:5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Salido AL, Hasty KL, Lim JM, Butcher DJ (2003) Phytoremediation of arsenic and lead in contaminated soil using Chinese Brake ferns (Pteris vittata) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). Int J Phytoremediation 5:89–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Salt DE, Smith RD, Raskin I (1998) Phytoremediation. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 49: 643–668PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Schaller J, Brackhage C, Mkandawire M, Dudel EG (2011) Metal/metalloid accumulation/remobilization during aquatic litter decomposition in freshwater: a review. Sci Tot Environ 409:4891–4898Google Scholar
  114. Schlegel C, von Neumann CP, Neumeyer F, Richter A, Strauch S, de Boer J, Dasso CH, Peterson RJ (1994) Depopulation of 180Tam by Coulomb excitation and possible astrophysical consequences. Phys Rev C Nucl Phys 50:2198–2204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Shanker AK, Cervantes C, Loza-Tavera H, Avudainayagam S (2005) Chromium toxicity in plants. Environ Int 31:739–753PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Sheng X, Xia JJ (2006) Improvement of rape (Brassica napus) plant growth and cadmium uptake by cadmium-resistant bacteria. Chemosphere 64:1036–1042PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Sheorana V, Sheoranb AS, Pooniaa P (2009) Phytomining: a review. Min Eng 22:1007–1019Google Scholar
  118. Stout LM, Dodova EN, Tyson JF, Nüsslein K (2010) Phytoprotective influence of bacteria on growth and cadmium accumulation in the aquatic plant lemna minor. Water Res 44(17):4970–4979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Sundby B, Vale C, Cacador I, Catarino F, Madureira MJ, Caetano M (1998) Metal-rich concretions on the roots of salt marsh plants: mechanisms and rate of formation. Limnol Oceanogr 43:245–252Google Scholar
  120. Tamaki S, Frankenberger WT Jr (1992) Environmental biochemistry of arsenic. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 124:79–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Tangahu BV, Abdullah SRS, Basri H, Idris M, Anuar N, Mukhlisin M (2011) A review on heavy metals (As, Pb, and Hg) uptake by plants through phytoremediation. Int J Chem Eng. doi: 10.1155/2011/939161
  122. Tessier A, Campbell P, Bisson M (1979) Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Anal Chem 51:844–850Google Scholar
  123. USEPA (1995) United States Environmental Protection Agency: America’s Wetlands: our vital link between land and water. EPA 843-K-95-001. Accessed 21 Aug 2012
  124. USEPA (2000) United States Environmental Protection Agency: introduction to phytoremediation, EPA 600-R-99-107. (; downloaded on 26-1-13)
  125. USEPA (2001) United States Environmental Protection Agency: functions and values of wetlands. EPA 843-F-01-002c. Accessed 21 Aug 2012
  126. USEPA (2004) United States Environmental Protection Agency: constructed treatment wetlands. EPA 843-F-03-013. Accessed 21 Aug 2012
  127. USEPA (2009a) United States Environmental Protection Agency: municipal solid waste in the United States. Accessed 21 Aug 2012
  128. USEPA (2009b) United States Environmental Protection Agency: EPA programs that address runoff. Accessed 21 Aug 2012
  129. Using phytoremediation to clean up sites. Accessed 21 Aug 2012
  130. Vale C, Catarino F, Cortesao C, Cacador M (1990) Presence of metal-rich rhizoconcretions on the roots of Spartina maritima from the salt marshes of the Tagus estuary, Portugal. Sci Tot Environ 97(98):617–626Google Scholar
  131. Verkleij JA, Schat H (1990) Mechanisms of metal tolerance in higher plants. In: Shaw AJ (ed) Heavy metal tolerance in plants: evolutionary aspects. CRC, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  132. Vesk PA, Nockolds CE, Allaway WG (1999) Metal localization in water hyacinth roots from an urban wetland. Plant Cell Environ 22:149–158Google Scholar
  133. Watanabe ME (1997) Phytoremediation on the brink of commercialization. Environ Sci Technol 31:182–186Google Scholar
  134. Weis JS, Weis P (2004) Metal uptake, transport and release by wetland plants: implications for phytoremediation and restoration. Environ Int 30:685–700PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Wheeler CT, Hughes LT, Oldroyd J, Pulford ID (2001) Effects of nickel on Frankia and its symbiosis with Alnus glutinosa (L.). Gaertn. Plant Soil 23:81–90Google Scholar
  136. Whiting SN, Leake JR, McGrath SP, Baker AJM (2001) Zinc accumulation by Thlaspi caerulescens from soils with different Zn availability: a pot study. Plant Soil 236:11–18Google Scholar
  137. Williams JB (2002) Phytoremediation in wetland ecosystems: progress, problems and potential. Crit Rev Plant Sci 21:607–635Google Scholar
  138. Wright DJ, Otte ML (1999) Wetland plant effects on the biogeochemistry of metals beyond the rhizosphere. Biol Environ Proc Roy Irish Acad 99B:3–10Google Scholar
  139. Wu SC, Cheung KC, Luo YM, Wong MH (2006) Effects of inoculation of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on metal uptake by Brassica juncea. Environ Pollut 140:124–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Ye Z, Baker AJ, Wong MH, Willis AJ (1998) Zinc, lead and cadmium accumulation and tolerance in Typha latifolia as affected by iron plaque on the root surface. Aquat Bot 61:55–67Google Scholar
  141. Zantopoulos N, Antoniou V, Nikolaidis E (1999) Copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead in sheep grazing in North Greece. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 62:691–699PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Zheng J, Hintelmann H, Dimock D, Dzurko MS (2003) Speciation of arsenic in water, sediment, and plants of the Moira watershed, Canada, using HPLC coupled to high resolution ICP-MS. Anal Bioanal Chem 377:14–24PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Soumya Chatterjee
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sibnarayan Datta
    • 1
  • Priyanka Halder Mallick
    • 2
  • Anindita Mitra
    • 3
  • Vijay Veer
    • 1
  • Subhra Kumar Mukhopadhyay
    • 4
  1. 1.Defence Research Laboratory, DRDOTezpurIndia
  2. 2.Department of ZoologyVidyasagar UniversityMidnapore (West)India
  3. 3.Department of ZoologyBankura Christian CollegeBankuraIndia
  4. 4.Hooghly Mohsin CollegeChinsurahIndia

Personalised recommendations