Image Steganography Using Gradient Adjacent Prediction in Side-Match Vector Quantization

  • Shiau-Rung Tsui
  • Cheng-Ta Huang
  • Wei-Jen Wang
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 21)

Abstract

This study presents a new steganographic method that embeds secret data into a cover digital image using VQ encoding. The core concept of the proposed method uses the gradient adjacent prediction (GAP) algorithm, which enhances prediction accuracy of neighboring blocks in SMVQ encoding. To embed secret data into the cover image, the proposed method utilizes the features of GAP to decide the capacity of the secret data per pixel in a block. It then embeds the secret data accordingly. It also embeds an index value in each block to ensure that the secret data can be recovered back. The index value points to the closest codeword of a state codebook to the encoding block, where the state codebook is generated by GAP-based SMVQ. The result shows that the proposed method has better performance than a recent similar work proposed by Chen and Lin in 2010.

Keywords

Steganography Gradient adjacent prediction (GAP) VQ SMVQ 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Xu, H., Wang, J., Kim, H.J.: Near-optimal solution to pair-wise LSB matching via an immune programming strategy. Inf. Sci. 180(8), 1201–1217 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Peng, F., Li, X., Yang, B.: Adaptive reversible data hiding scheme based on integer transform. Signal Processing 92(1), 54–62 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lin, C.C., Tai, W.L., Chang, C.C.: Multilevel reversible data hiding based on histogram modification of difference images. Pattern Recogn. 41(12), 3582–3591 (2008)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Liao, X., Wen, Q.Y., Zhang, J.: A steganographic method for digital images with four-pixel differencing and modified LSB substitution. Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation 22(1), 1–8 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lou, D.C., Hu, C.H.: LSB steganographic method based on reversible histogram transformation function for resisting statistical steganalysis. Information Sciences 188(1), 346–358 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chung, K.L., Shen, C.H., Chang, L.C.: A novel SVD- and VQ-based image hiding scheme. Pattern Recognition Letters 22(9), 1051–1058 (2001)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chang, C.C., Lin, C.C., Tseng, C.S., Tai, W.L.: Reversible hiding in DCT-based compressed images. Information Sciences 177(13), 2768–2786 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Noda, H., Niimi, M., Kawaguchi, E.: High-performance JPEG steganography using quantization index modulation in DCT domain. Pattern Recognition Letters 27(5), 455–461 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chang, C.C., Nguyen, T.S., Lin, C.C.: A reversible data hiding scheme for VQ indices using locally adaptive coding. Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation 22(7), 664–672 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chang, C.C., Wu, W.C., Hu, Y.C.: Lossless recovery of a VQ index table with embedded secret data. Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation 18(3), 207–216 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chang, C.C., Tai, W.L., Lin, C.C.: A reversible data hiding scheme based on side match vector quantization. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 16(10), 1301–1308 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yang, C.H., Wang, W.J., Huang, C.T., Wang, S.J.: Reversible steganography based on side match and hit pattern for VQ-compressed images. Information Sciences 181(11), 2218–2230 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chen, L.S.T., Lin, J.C.: Steganography scheme based on side match vector quantization. Optical Engineering 49(3), 0370080–0370087 (2010)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gray, R.: Vector quantization. IEEE ASSP Magazine 1(2), 4–29 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kim, T.: Side match and overlap match vector quantizers for images. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 1(2), 170–185 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bender, W., Gruhl, D., Morimoto, N., Lu, A.: Techniques for data hiding. IBM Systems Journal 35(384), 313–336 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fallahpour, M., Megias, D., Ghanbari, M.: Subjectively adapted high capacity lossless image data hiding based on prediction errors. Multimedia Tools Appl. 52(2-3), 513–527 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Linde, Y., Buzo, A., Gray, R.: An algorithm for vector quantizer design. IEEE Transactions on Communications 28(1), 84–95 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shiau-Rung Tsui
    • 1
  • Cheng-Ta Huang
    • 1
  • Wei-Jen Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and Information EngineeringNational Central UniversityZhongliTaiwan
  2. 2.Software Research CenterNational Central UniversityZhongliTaiwan

Personalised recommendations