Advertisement

Medical Applications of Poly(vinyl alcohol) Cryogels

  • S. Reiter
  • R. Mongrain
  • M. Abdelali
  • J.-C. TardifEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Cryo-treatment of polymeric hydrogels, such as poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogels (PVA-C), have long been developed for a variety of medical applications. In the case of PVA-C the simplicity of its fabrication in its most basic form, obtained through a series of freezing and thawing cycles from low to room temperatures, along with its highly tailored microstructure, soft-tissue-like mechanical properties, and excellent biocompatibility makes it one of the most promising medical hydrogels researched today. In this chapter, we discuss the properties of soft tissues, with an emphasis on human vasculature, as a preamble for our investigation of current techniques in PVA-C manufacturing. The mechanical properties of PVA-C are then presented, outlining its behavior with varying cryo-treatments and PVA concentrations. We then highlight an example of PVA-C used for a coronary imaging phantom, and lastly provide brief examples of PVA-C and its derivatives in a variety of biomedical applications.

Keywords

Poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogel Vasculature elasticity Freeze–thaw cycles Coronary phantoms Tissue scaffolds 

References

  1. 1.
    Pazos V, Mongrain R, Tardif J-C (2010) Deformable mock stenotic artery with a lipid pool. J Biomech Eng 132(3):034501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mano I, Hitoshi G, Nambu M, Iio M (1986) New polyvinyl alcohol gel material for MRI phantoms. Magn Reson Med 3:921–926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kawase Y, Suzuki Y, Ikeno F, Yoneyama R, Hoshino K, Ly HQ, Lau GT, Hayase M, Yeung AC, Hajjar RJ, Jang I-K (2007) Comparison of nonuniform rotational distortion between mechanical IVUS and OCT using a phantom model. Ultrasound Med Biol 33:67–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Molzahn AE, Starzomski R, McCormick J (2002) The supply of organs for transplantation: issues and challenges. Nephrol Nurs J 30:17–26Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Humphrey JD (2002) Cardiovascular solid mechanics: cells, tissues, and organs. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ikada Y (2006) Tissue engineering: fundamentals and applications. Elsevier, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pogue BW, Patterson MS (2006) Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry. J Biomed Opt 11:041102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ishihara M, Nakanishi K, Katsuaki O, Masato S, Kikuchi M, Saito Y, Yura H, Matsui T, Hattori H, Uenoyama M, Kurita A (2002) Photocrosslinkable chitosan as a dressing for wound occlusion and accelerator in healing process. Biomaterials 23:833–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hahn M, Teply BA, Stevens MM, Zeitals SM, Langer R (2005) Collagen composite hydrogels for vocal fold lamina propria restoration. Biomaterials 27:1104–1109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sonntag R, Reinders J, Kretzer JP (2012) What’s next? Alternative materials for articulation in total joint replacement. Acta Biomater 7:2434–2441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gupta S, Webster TJ, Sinha A (2011) Evolution of PVA gels prepared without crosslinking agents as a cell adhesive surface. J Mater Sci Mater Med 22:1763–1772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Richardson PD (2006) Mechanical properties of atherosclerotic tissues. In: Holzapfel GA, Ogden R (eds) Mechanics of biological tissues. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Holzapfel G, Gasser T, Ogden R (2000) A new constitutive framework for arterial wall mechanics and a comparative study of material models. J Elast 61:1–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pazos V, Mongrain R, Tardif J-C (2009) Polyvinyl alcohol cryogel: optimizing the parameters of cryogenic treatment using hyperelastic models. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2:542–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chu B (2010) Characterization of aortic tissue fracture toughness and stiffness under cyclic fatigue loading. Master’s thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University. Retrieved from eScholarship@McGill (Publication Number 86772)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gref R, Nguyen QT, Schaetzel P, Néel J (1993) Transport properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) membranes of different degrees of crystallinity. J Appl Polym Sci 49:209–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pramanick AK, Gupta S, Mishra T, Sinha A (2012) Topographical heterogeneity in transparent PVA hydrogels studied by AFM. Mater Sci Eng 32:222–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dawson A, Harris P, Gouws G (2010) Anisotropic microstructured poly(vinyl alcohol) tissue-mimicking phantoms. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 57:1494–1496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wang BH, Campbell G (2009) Formulations of polyvinyl alcohol cryogel that mimic the biomechanical properties of soft tissues in the natural lumbar intervertebral disc. Spine 34:2745–2753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kehoe S, Zhang XF, Boyd D (2012) FDA approved guidance conduits and wraps for peripheral nerve injury: a review of materials and efficacy. Injury 43:553–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lozinsky VI, Plieva FM (1997) Poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogels employed as matrices for cell immobilization. 3. Overview of recent research and developments. Enzyme Microb Technol 23:227–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pazos V, Mongrain R, Tardif J-C (2010) Mechanical characterization of atherosclerotic arteries using finite-element modeling: feasibility study on mock arteries. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 57:1520–1528CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Reiter
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. Mongrain
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. Abdelali
    • 2
    • 3
  • J.-C. Tardif
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Department of AtherosclerosisMontreal Heart InstituteMontrealCanada
  3. 3.Départment de MédicineUniversité de MontréalMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations