Advertisement

The Behavior of Polymer-Based Dielectrics Under Cryogenic Conditions

  • H. RodrigoEmail author
Chapter
  • 1.3k Downloads

Abstract

Dielectrics is ubiquitous in all electrical systems. In this chapter we introduce many aspects in a systematic manner in order for the reader to be able to follow it in a sequence. Firstly, the various media and the salient features of each are discussed. The media range from vacuum to highly compressed gases, liquids, and solids. The basic mechanism of dielectric behavior is discussed in each different case when subject to electric field. The imposed electric field can be of different forms such as steady-state AC and DC voltages. It can also be due to transients in the system brought about by switching operations or they could be due to naturally occurring phenomena namely lightning. The configuration of electrode geometries and the polarity of the electrodes bring about phenomena within the media that need to be understood in order to design electrical systems for a variety of applications. We also focus our attention particularly when the media are at cryogenic temperatures. The electronic and ionic reaction mechanics change drastically at low temperatures. In the early part of this chapter the discussion is centered around the basics such as partial discharge, electrical breakdown, dielectric losses, and permittivity. This is followed by applications of power cable design and operation at or near the boiling point of liquid helium. The reader is directed to some real life experiences of such cable systems. Once again the emphasis here has been on the dielectric aspects and the role that materials play in enabling such technology. With the advent of high temperature superconductors (HTS) the outlook was more promising as superconductivity could be achieved at around the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K).

Most dielectric systems were designed with the cryogen playing a dual role of being the cooling medium and also being an integral part of the dielectric. As HTS became more widespread cold compressed gaseous helium is now considered viable for some special applications. Advances in the development of polymeric materials for cryogenic applications have largely kept up with HTS technology. However, there are problems that have to be overcome, in particular mechanical strength at low temperatures. Another problem inherent to devices such as cables and coils is winding gaps and inclusions. This presents opportunities for partial discharges to start and if not avoided leads to aging of the device and finally failure. Important dielectric properties such as permittivity and loss tangent have been discussed at some length. The measurement of these parameters not only gives their numerical values but also provides insight into the behavior of the material properties in a general sense. Composites is another area that is being actively pursued and this topic is discussed in particular the differences between micro- and nano-fillers in polymer resins. The large increase in surface area with the reduction in particle size to the nano-scale has opened up great opportunities for advancement. The interfacial region is one that holds the key to future advancement in this technology. Cryogenic nanocomposites are a fascinating technology that has opened up new horizons, and many laboratories are making great progress in understanding the behavior of these materials both theoretically and with experiments.

Keywords

Dielectric Cryogenic Polymer Nanoparticles Electrical breakdown Partial discharge 

References

  1. 1.
    Allen NL, Mikropoulos PN (1999) Streamer propagation along insulating surfaces. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul 6(3):357–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Blank C, Edwards MH (1960) Dielectric breakdown of liquid helium. Phys Rev 119(1):50–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bochenek E, Franke H, Wimmershoff R (1975) Manufacture and initial tests of a high power dc cable with superconductors. IEEE Trans Magn 11:366–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Buliniski A, Densley J, Sudersham TS (1980) The ageing of electrical insulation at cryogenic temperatures. IEEE Trans Electr Insul EI-15:83–88Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cao Y, Irwin PC (2003) The electrical conduction in polyimide nanocomposites. In: Annual report conference on electrical insulation and dielectric phenomena. Alburquerque, New Mexico, pp 116–119Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chowdhuri P (1981) Some characteristics of dielectric materials at cryogenic temperatures for HVDC systems. IEEE Trans Electr Insul EI-16(1):40–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chowdhuri P (1982) Electrical characteristics of a DC superconducting cable. Cryogenics 22: 171–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cook CM (1982) Charging of insulator surfaces by ionization and transport in gases. IEEE Trans Electr Insul EI-17:172–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fallou B, Galand J, Bouvier B (1970) Dielectric breakdown of gaseous helium at very low temperatures. Cryogenics 10:142–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Forsyth EB, Blewett RB, Garber M et al (1973) Flexible superconducting power cables. IEEE Trans Power App Syst 92(2):494–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Forsyth EB, McNerney AJ, Muller AC, Rigby SJ (1978) Progress in the development of gas-impregnated lapped plastic film insulation. IEEE Trans Power App Syst 97(3):734–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fowler WB, Dexter DL (1968) Electronic bubble states in liquid helium. Phys Rev 176: 337–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Frechette MF, Larocque RY, Trudeau MI et al (2005) Nanodielectric surface performance when submitted to partial discharges in compressed air. In: Annual report conference on electrical insulation and dielectric phenomena. Nashville, Tennessee, pp 727–731Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gallimberti I, Marchesi G, Niemeyer L (1991) Streamer corona at an insulating surface. In: Seventh international conference on high voltage engineering, Dresden, paper 41.10Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gao L, Gu JZ (2002) Effective dielectric constant of a two-component material with shape distribution. J Phys D Appl Phys 35:267–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Garnett JCM (1904) Colours in metal glasses and in metallic films. Philos Trans R Soc Lond A 203:385–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Garton CG (1962) The energy of discharges and their interaction with solid dielectrics. Gas discharges and the electrical supply industry. Butterworth, London, pp 412–419Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gerhold J (1972) Dielectric breakdown of helium at low temperatures. Cryogenics 12(5): 370–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gerhold J (1988) Helium breakdown near the critical state. IEEE Trans Electr Insul 23(4): 765–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Goldschvartz JM, Ouwerk AC, Blaisse BS (1970) On the electrical breakdown of liquid helium. IEE Conf Publ 67:218–222Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Graber L, Rodrigo H, Salmhofer F et al (2011) Experimental determination of dielectric properties of Cryoflex in high pressure cold helium gas. In: International symposium on high voltage engineering, Hannover, Germany, D 007Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Green C, Vaughan A (2008) Nanodilectrics—how much do we really understand. IEEE Insul Mag 24(4):6–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Greenwood A (1991) Electrical transients in power systems. Wiley Interscience, New York, p 492Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Greenwood A (1994) Vacuum switchgear. Institution of Electrical Engineers Publishing, UK, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Griseri V, Dissado LA, Fothergill JC et al (2002) Electroluminescence mechanisms in an epoxy resin under divergent and uniform field. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul 9(1):150–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Harrwig G, Knaak S (1984) Fibre–epoxy composites at low temperatures. Cryogenics 24: 639–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hiley J, Dhariwal RS (1985) Dielectric breakdown in high density helium and in helium impregnated solid dielectrics. Cryogenics 25:334–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ieda M, Sawa G, Miyairi K (1972) Dielectric breakdown of polyethelene film at cryogenic temperatures. In: International symposium on high voltage engineering, Munich, pp 414–421Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kind D (1978) An introduction to high voltage experimental technique. Vieweg, Braunschweig, GermanyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kind D, Kaerner H (1985) High voltage insulation technology. Vieweg, Braunschweig, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Koo JH (2006) Polymer nanocomposites; processing, chacterization and applications. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kohno T et al (1980) Electrical breakdown of ice at cryogenic temperatures. IEEE Trans Electr Insul EI 15(1):27–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kosaki M, Shimizu N, Horii K (1977) Treeing of polyethelene at 77 K. IEEE Trans Electr Insul EI-12(1):40–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kuffel E, Zaengl WS (1984) High voltage engineering fundamentals. Pergamon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Latham R (ed) (1995) High voltage vacuum insulation. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lewis TJ (1994) Nanometric dielectrics. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul 1(5):812–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lewis TJ (2005) Interfaces: nanometric dielectrics. J Phys D Appl Phys 38:202–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Loeb LB (1965) Electrical coronas their basic physical mechanisms. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 30–46Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mathes KN (1967) Dielectric properties of cryogenic liquids. IEEE Trans Electr Insul EI 2(1):24–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Meats RJ (1972) Pressurised—helium breakdown at very low temperatures. Proc IEE 119(6):760–766Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Nelson JK, Hu Y, Thiticharoenpong J (2003) Electrical properties of TiO2 nanocomposites. In: IEEE annual report conference on electrical insulation and dielectric phenomena. Boulder, Colarado, pp 719–722Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nelson JK, Fothergill JC (2004) Internal charge behaviour in nanocomposites. Nanotechnology 15:586–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Poli E (1982) A comparison between positive and negative corona. In: Seventh international conference on gas discharges and their applications, London, UK, pp 132–135Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Polizos G et al (2010) Properties of a nanodielectric cryogenic resin. Appl Phys Lett 96(15):152903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rodrigo H, Allen NL, Tan BH (2002) Negative corona development along insulator surfaces under impulse voltages. In: Proceedings of international conference on gas discharges and their applications, vol 1, Liverpool, UK, pp 263–266Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rodrigo H, Tan BH, Allen NL (2005) Negative and positive impulse corona development along cylindrical insulator surfaces. IEE Proc Sci Meas Technol 152(5):201–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rodrigo H, Baumgartinger W, Ingrole A, et al (2008) Breakdown of transformer insulation materials under cryogenic and room temperature. Mater Res Soc Symp Proc, vol 1134, BB03.10.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rodrigo H, Salmhofer F, Kwag DS, Pamidi S, Graber L, Crook DG, Ranner SL, Dale S, Knoll D (2012) Dielectric studies of a novel high pressure helium gas cooled DC power cable. Cryogenics 52:310–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sato S, Zaengl WS, Knecht A (1987) Analysis of accumulated surface charge on DC epoxy resin spaces. IEEE Trans Electr Insul EI-22:3333–3340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Schwarz G (1988) Thermal expansion of polymers from 4.2 to room temperature. Cryogenics 28:248–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Shimizu N, Nagata T, Horii K et al (1986) Thermal contraction and cracking of extruded polyethlene electrical insulation at cryogenic temperatures. Cryogenics 26:459–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sillars RW (1937) The properties of a dielectric containing semiconducting particles of various shapes. J Inst Electr Eng 80:378–394Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Stoop Th, Tom J, Verhaart HFA et al (1985) The role of electrostatic in insulator flashover in SF6. In: Eighth international conference on gas discharges and their applications, Oxford, UK, pp 286–289Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Thoris J, Leon B, Dubois A, Bobo J (1970) Dielectric breakdown of cold gaseous helium in large gaps. Cryogenics 10:147–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Tuncer E, Polizos SI (2011) Electrical insulation paper and its physical properties at cryogenic temperatures. IEEE Trans Appl Superconduct 21(3 Part 2):1438–1440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Tuncer E, Sauers I, James DR et al (2009) Nanodielectrics for cryogenic applications. IEEE Trans Appl Supercond 19(3):2354–2358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Tuncer E, Sauers I, James DR et al (2008) Nanodielectric system for cryogenic applications: barium titanate filled polyvinyl alcohol. IEEE Trans Dielectr Electr Insul 15(1):236–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Tuncer E, Sauers I, James DR et al (2007) Enhancement of dielectric strength in nanocomposites. Nanotechnology 18:325704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Tuncer E, Sauers I, James DR et al (2007) Electrical properties of epoxy resin based nanocomposites. Nanotechnology 18:025703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Verhaart HFA, Tom J, Verhage A et al (1987) Avalanches near solid insulators. In: Fifth international conference on gas discharge and their applications, Braunschweig, paper 13.01Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Weedy BM, Swingler SG (1979) Life expectancy of liquid nitrogen taped cable insulation. IEEE Trans Electr Insul EI-14:222–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Weedy BM, Swingler SG, Shaikh S (1982) Life expectancy and failure mechanisms of lapped synthetic tape impregnated with supercritical helium. IEE Proc 129 Pt A(5):328–331Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Weedy BM, Swingler SG (1987) Review of tape materials for cable insulation at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Cryogenics 27:668–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Zhang C, Mason R Stevens GC (2005) Dielectric properties of alumina polymer nanocomposites. In: Annual report conference on electrical insulation and dielectric phenomena. Nashville, Tennessee, pp 721–724Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Advanced Power SystemsFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA

Personalised recommendations