Applications of EMMS Drag in Industry

  • Jinghai Li
  • Wei Ge
  • Wei Wang
  • Ning Yang
  • Xinhua Liu
  • Limin Wang
  • Xianfeng He
  • Xiaowei Wang
  • Junwu Wang
  • Mooson Kwauk


This chapter reviews the use of the EMMS drag and paradigm to solve industrial problems including the design, optimization and scale-up of the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process, and optimization of fluidized bed combustion and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. Application of the EMMS drag to these problems in turn aids its development.


Choking Circulating fluidized bed Combustion EMMS Fischer-Tropsch Fluid catalytic cracking Multiscale CFD Multi-scale CFD 



Effective drag coefficient for a particle


Bubble diameter, m


Particle diameter, m


Solids flux, kg/m2 s


Heterogeneity index


Saturation carrying capacity, kg/m2 s


Pressure, Pa


Gas volumetric flow rate, m3/s


Superficial velocity (=  g), m/s


Choking gas velocity, m/s


Superficial slip velocity, m/s


Solids flow rate (kg/s)


Mass fraction of particles


Mass fraction of gas species


Axial height, m


Local superficial Reynolds number (ρ g d p U s/μ g)

Greek letters


Volume fraction


Granular temperature, m2/s2


Viscosity, Pa s


Density, kg/m3





Gas phase


Liquid phase




Solid phase


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jinghai Li
    • 1
  • Wei Ge
    • 1
  • Wei Wang
    • 1
  • Ning Yang
    • 1
  • Xinhua Liu
    • 1
  • Limin Wang
    • 1
  • Xianfeng He
    • 1
  • Xiaowei Wang
    • 1
  • Junwu Wang
    • 1
  • Mooson Kwauk
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Process EngineeringChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

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