Skip to main content

Part of the book series: Springer Series in Chemical Physics ((PUILS,volume 104))

Abstract

After introducing some fundamental concepts and definitions for carrier-envelope stabilization schemes and frequency combs, measurement schemes for the carrier-envelope phase of oscillators and amplified systems are discussed. In particular, care is taken to point out typical problems in the experimental implementation of such schemes and to indicate ways to eliminate or reduce these issues. One of these potential problems is interferometer drift, another limiting factor may be shot noise in the photo detection. After this overview on detection of the carrier-envelope phase, techniques for its active stabilization are discussed. Two major approaches are addressed: the traditional feedback technique and the recently introduced feed-forward technique. Shortcomings and advantages of either technique are carefully compared and discussed. Finally, characterization methods are discussed, including example measurements that were recently obtained with the feed-forward method. These measurements indicate the smallest residual carrier-envelope phase jitter that was ever reported.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 84.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 109.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 109.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. T. Brabec, F. Krausz, Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics. Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545 (2000)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  2. S. Backus, C.G. Durfee, M.M. Murnane, H.C. Kapteyn, High power ultrafast lasers. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1207 (1998)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  3. G. Steinmeyer, D.H. Sutter, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, U. Keller, Frontiers in ultrashort pulse generation: pushing the limits in linear and nonlinear optics. Science 286, 1507 (1999)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. G. Steinmeyer, A review of ultrafast optics and optoelectronics. J. Opt. A 5, R1 (2003)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  5. D.H. Sutter, G. Steinmeyer, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, T. Tschudi, Semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror-assisted Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser producing pulses in the two-cycle regime. Opt. Lett. 24 (1999)

    Google Scholar 

  6. U. Morgner, F.X. Kärtner, S.H. Cho, Y. Chen, H.A. Haus, J.G. Fujimoto, E.P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, T. Tschudi, Sub-two-cycle pulses from a Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser. Opt. Lett. 24, 411 (1999)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  7. R. Ell, U. Morgner, F.X. Kärtner, J.G. Fujimoto, E.P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, T. Tschudi, M.J. Lederer, A. Boiko, B. Luther-Davies, Generation of 5-fs pulses and octave-spanning spectra directly from a Ti:sapphire laser. Opt. Lett. 26, 373 (2001)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  8. L. Xu, C. Spielmann, A. Poppe, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, T.W. Hänsch, Route to phase control of ultrashort light pulses. Opt. Lett. 21, 2008 (1996)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  9. B. Borchers, S. Koke, A. Husakou, J. Herrmann, G. Steinmeyer, Carrier-envelope phase stabilization with sub-10 as residual timing jitter. Opt. Lett. 36, 4146 (2011)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  10. H.R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A.E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D.H. Sutter, U. Keller, Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation. Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  11. T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T.W. Hänsch, Optical frequency metrology. Nature 416, 233 (2002)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  12. S.T. Cundiff, J. Ye, Colloquium: femtosecond optical frequency combs. Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325 (2003)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  13. H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Zinner, First phase-coherent frequency measurement of visible radiation. Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 18 (1996)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  14. K. Osvay, M. Görbe, C. Grebing, G. Steinmeyer, Bandwidth-independent linear method for detection of the carrier-envelope offset phase. Opt. Lett. 32, 3095 (2007)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  15. P. Jójárt, Á. Börzsönyi, B. Borchers, G. Steinmeyer, K. Osvay, Agile linear interferometric method for carrier-envelope phase drift measurement. Opt. Lett. 37, 836 (2012)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  16. A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, T. Kobayashi, Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers. Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 133901 (2002)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  17. T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V.S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. Udem, C. Gohle, T.W. Hänsch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, F. Krausz, Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme. Opt. Lett. 30, 332 (2005)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  18. L. Lepetit, G. Cheriaux, M. Joffre, Linear techniques of phase measurement by femtosecond spectral interferometry for applications in spectroscopy. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2467 (1995)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  19. M. Mehendale, S.A. Mitchell, J.-P. Likforman, D.M. Villeneuve, P.B. Corkum, Method for single-shot measurement of the carrier envelope phase of a few-cycle laser pulse. Opt. Lett. 25, 1672 (2000)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  20. M. Kakehata, H. Takada, Y. Kobayashi, K. Torizuka, Y. Fujihira, T. Homma, H. Takahashi, Single-shot measurement of carrier-envelope phase changes by spectral interferometry. Opt. Lett. 26, 1436 (2001)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  21. G.G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses. Nature 414, 182 (2001)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  22. A.M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Müller, K. Rühle, R. Kienberger, G.G. Paulus, Precise, real-time, every-single-shot, carrier-envelope phase measurement of ultrashort laser pulses. Opt. Lett. 36, 1 (2011)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  23. K. Kreß, T. Löfler, M.D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, H.G. Roskos, Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy. Nat. Phys. 2, 327 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G.G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, C. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  25. M. Krüger, M. Schenk, P. Hommelhoff, Attosecond control of electrons emitted from a nanoscale metal tip. Nature 475, 78 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. J.K. Ranka, R.S. Windeler, A.J. Stentz, Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm. Opt. Lett. 25, 25 (2000)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  27. D.J. Jones, S.A. Diddams, J.K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R.S. Windeler, J.L. Hall, S.T. Cundiff, Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis. Science 288, 635 (2000)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  28. T.M. Fortier, A. Bartels, S.A. Diddams, Octave-spanning Ti:sapphire laser with a repetition rate >1 GHz for optical frequency measurements and comparisons. Opt. Lett. 31, 1011 (2006)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  29. C. Grebing, S. Koke, B. Manschwetus, G. Steinmeyer, Performance comparison of interferometer topologies for carrier-envelope phase detection. Appl. Phys. B 95, 81 (2009)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  30. D.J. Jones, T.M. Fortier, S.T. Cundiff, Highly sensitive detection of the carrier-envelope phase evolution and offset of femtosecond mode-locked oscillators. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1098 (2004)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  31. R.L. Fork, O.E. Martinez, J.P. Gordon, Negative dispersion using pairs of prisms. Opt. Lett. 9, 150 (1984)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  32. F.W. Helbing, G. Steinmeyer, J. Stenger, H.R. Telle, U. Keller, Carrier-envelope-offset dynamics and stabilization of femtosecond pulses. Appl. Phys. B 74, S35 (2002)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  33. F. Gires, P. Tournois, Interféromètre utilisable pour la compression d’impulsions lumineuses modulées en fréquence. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 258, 6112 (1964)

    Google Scholar 

  34. U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T.R. Schibli, F.X. Kärtner, J.G. Fujimoto, H.A. Haus, E.P. Ippen, Nonlinear optics with phase-controlled pulses in the sub-two-cycle regime. Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5462 (2001)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  35. F. Lücking, A. Assion, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, G. Steinmeyer, Long-term carrier-envelope-phase-stable few-cycle pulses by use of the feed-forward method. Opt. Lett. 37, 2076–2078 (2012)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  36. M. Bradler, P. Baum, E. Riedle, Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-μJ pump pulses. Appl. Phys. B 97, 561 (2009)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  37. A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V.S. Yakoviev, A. Scrinzi, T.W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields. Nature 421, 611 (2003)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  38. M. Frigo, S.G. Johnson, The design and implementation of FFTW3. Proc. IEEE 93, 216 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. A. Silberschatz, B. Gagne, P.B. Galvin, Operating System Concepts, 7th edn. (Wiley, New York, 2005)

    Google Scholar 

  40. S. Koke, C. Grebing, B. Manschwetus, G. Steinmeyer, Fast f-to-2f interferometer for a direct measurement of the carrier-envelope phase drift of ultrashort amplified laser pulses. Opt. Lett. 33, 2545 (2008)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  41. G. Gademann, F. Plé, P.-M. Paul, M.J.J. Vrakking, Carrier-envelope phase stabilization of a terawatt level chirped pulse amplifier for generation of intense isolated attosecond pulses. Opt. Express 19, 24922 (2011)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  42. A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V.S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T.W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 972 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. M. Kakehata, H. Takada, Y. Kobayashi, K. Torizuka, H. Takamiya, K. Nishijima, T. Homma, H. Takahashi, K. Okubo, S. Nakamura, Y. Koyamada, Carrier-envelope-phase stabilized chirped-pulse amplification system scalable to higher pulse energies. Opt. Express 12, 2070 (2004)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  44. G. Cerullo, A. Baltuška, O.D. Mücke, C. Vozzi, Few-optical-cycle light pulses with passive carrier-envelope phase stabilization. Laser Photonics Rev. 5, 323 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. A. Thai, M. Hemmer, P.K. Bates, O. Chalus, J. Biegert, Sub-250-mrad, passively carrier-envelope-phase-stable mid-infrared OPCPA source at high repetition rate. Opt. Lett. 36, 3918 (2011)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  46. S. Koke, A. Anderson, H. Frei, A. Assion, G. Steinmeyer, Noise performance of a feed-forward scheme for carrier-envelope phase stabilization. Appl. Phys. B 104, 799 (2011)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  47. C. Grebing, M. Görbe, K. Osvay, G. Steinmeyer, Isochronic and isodispersive carrier-envelope phase-shift compensators. Appl. Phys. B 97, 575 (2009)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  48. L. Arissian, J.-C. Diels, Carrier to envelope and dispersion control in a cavity with prism pairs. Phys. Rev. A 75, 013814 (2007)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  49. S. Witte, R. Zinkstok, W. Hogervorst, K. Eikema, Control and precise measurement of carrier-envelope phase dynamics. Appl. Phys. B 78, 5 (2004)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  50. F.W. Helbing, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, R.S. Windeler, J. Stenger, H.R. Telle, Carrier-envelope offset dynamics of mode-locked lasers. Opt. Lett. 27, 194 (2002)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  51. M.Y. Sander, E.P. Ippen, F.X. Kärtner, Carrier-envelope phase dynamics of octave-spanning dispersion-managed Ti:sapphire lasers. Opt. Express 18, 4948 (2010)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  52. W.C. Lindsey, C.M. Chie, A survey of digital phase-locked loops. Proc. IEEE 69, 410 (1981)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  53. P. Horowitz, W. Hill, The Art of Electronics, 2nd edn. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1989), pp. 242–249

    Google Scholar 

  54. H.M. Crespo, J.R. Birge, E.L. Falcão-Filho, M.Y. Sander, A. Benedick, F.X. Kärtner, Nonintrusive phase stabilization of sub-two-cycle pulses from a prismless octave-spanning Ti:sapphire laser. Opt. Lett. 33, 833 (2008)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  55. E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V.S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A.L. Aquila, E.M. Gullikson, D.T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Kleineberg, Single-cycle nonlinear optics. Science 320, 1614 (2008)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  56. S. Rausch, T. Binhammer, A. Harth, E. Schulz, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, Few-cycle oscillator pulse train with constant carrier-envelope- phase and 65 as jitter. Opt. Express 17, 20282 (2009)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  57. S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, G. Steinmeyer, Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise. Nat. Photonics 4, 462 (2010)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  58. L. Matos, O.D. Mücke, J. Chen, F.X. Kärtner, Carrier-envelope phase dynamics and noise analysis in octave-spanning Ti:sapphire lasers. Opt. Express 14, 2497 (2006)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  59. O. Pronin, J. Brons, C. Grasse, V. Pervak, G. Boehm, M.-C. Amann, V.L. Kalashnikov, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, High-power 200 fs Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:YAG thin-disk oscillator. Opt. Lett. 36, 4746 (2011)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  60. C. Schriever, S. Lochbrunner, P. Krok, E. Riedle, Tunable pulses from below 300 to 970 nm with durations down to 14 fs based on a 2 MHz ytterbium-doped fiber system. Opt. Lett. 33, 192 (2008)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  61. F.W. Helbing, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, Carrier-envelope offset phase-locking with attosecond timing jitter. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1030 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. T.M. Fortier, D.J. Jones, J. Ye, S.T. Cundiff, Highly phase stable mode-locked lasers. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1002 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. J.-H. Lee, Y.S. Lee, J. Park, T.J. Yu, C.H. Nam, Long-term carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of a femtosecond laser by the direct locking method. Opt. Express 16, 12624 (2008)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

G.S. gratefully acknowledges Florian Helbing, Christian Grebing, and Sebastian Koke for their contributions to CEP stabilization during their PhD thesis work.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Günter Steinmeyer .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Steinmeyer, G., Borchers, B., Lücking, F. (2013). Carrier-Envelope Phase Stabilization. In: Yamanouchi, K., Midorikawa, K. (eds) Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science. Springer Series in Chemical Physics, vol 104. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35052-8_6

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics