Assessment of Axillary Nodes

  • Jill Su Lin Wong
  • Gay Hui Ho
  • Gary Tse
  • Puay Hoon Tan
  • Fernando Schmitt


The status of the axillary nodes represents the single most important prognostic factor in the assessment of a newly diagnosed breast cancer. Traditionally, this was assessed by performing axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and submitting the tissue for histologic examination. This approach is considered the gold standard for assessing the axilla. However, ALND incurs significant morbidity such as lymphedema, sensory loss, and shoulder immobility. With the advent of breast screening and the detection of smaller and more favorable cancers, a large number of newly diagnosed cancers are node negative, and full axillary clearance in these patients would lead to unnecessary long-term morbidity.


Sentinel Node Sentinel Node Biopsy Needle Biopsy Axillary Lymph Node Dissection Completion Axillary Lymph Node Dissection 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jill Su Lin Wong
  • Gay Hui Ho
  • Gary Tse
    • 1
  • Puay Hoon Tan
    • 2
  • Fernando Schmitt
    • 3
  1. 1.Prince of Wales Hospital Department of Anatomical And Cellular PathologyThe Chinese University of Hong KongShatin, NTHong Kong SAR
  2. 2.Department of PathologySingapore General HospitalSingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.Department of Pathology and OncologyMedical Faculty of Porto University and IPATIMUPPortoPortugal

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