The Z-Number Enigma: A Study through an Experiment

  • Romi Banerjee
  • Sankar K. Pal
Part of the Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing book series (STUDFUZZ, volume 291)


The Z-number, proposed by Zadeh in the year 2011, is a new fuzzy-theoretic approach to the Computing With Words (CWW) paradigm. It aspires to capture the uncertainty of information conveyed by a sentence, and serve as a model for the precisiation and linguistic summarization of a natural language statement. The Z-number thereby, lends a new dimension to CWW – uniting CWW with Natural Language Processing (NLP). This article is an illumination upon our exploration of the Z-number approach to CWW. Here, we enlist the probable contributions of the Z-number to CWW, present our algorithm for CWW using the Z-number, and describe a simulation of the technique with respect to a real-life example of CWW. In the course of the simulation, we extend the interpretation of the set-theoretic intersection operator to evaluate the intersection of perceptions and discover some of the challenges underlying the implementation of the Z-number in the area of CWW.


Computing With Words (CWW) cognition fuzzy sets linguistics machine learning text summarization natural language processing perceptions soft computing natural computing 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Soft Computing ResearchIndian Statistical InstituteKolkataIndia

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