Skip to main content

Automata Learning with On-the-Fly Direct Hypothesis Construction

  • Conference paper

Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS,volume 336)

Abstract

We present an active automata learning algorithm for Mealy state machines that directly constructs a state machine hypothesis according to observations, while other algorithms generate a state machine as output from information gathered in an observation table. Our DHC algorithm starts with a one-state hypothesis that it successively extends using a direct construction approach. This approach enables direct observation of the automata construction process: the learning algorithm continues to complete its hypothesis, providing intuition to a field of formal methods otherwise dominated by algorithms that largely operate on internal data structures without visible feedback.

The DHC algorithm is competitive in cases where memory is the critical issue, e.g., in embedded networked systems. It is also well-suited as educational tool to teach the underlying well-established theoretical methods in a totally unbiased fashion, without cluttering the view onto the actual idea of the learning process with aspects only relevant to internal bookkeeping.

Keywords

  • State Machine
  • Input Symbol
  • Automaton Learn
  • Input Alphabet
  • Membership Query

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This work was partially supported by the European Union FET Project CONNECT: Emergent Connectors for Eternal Software Intensive Networked Systems ( http://connect-forever.eu/ ).

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-34781-8_19
  • Chapter length: 13 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   69.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-642-34781-8
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   89.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aarts, F., Jonsson, B., Uijen, J.: Generating Models of Infinite-State Communication Protocols Using Regular Inference with Abstraction. In: Petrenko, A., Simão, A., Maldonado, J.C. (eds.) ICTSS 2010. LNCS, vol. 6435, pp. 188–204. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  2. Angluin, D.: Learning Regular Sets from Queries and Counterexamples. Information and Computation 75(2), 87–106 (1987)

    MathSciNet  CrossRef  MATH  Google Scholar 

  3. Dijkstra, E.W.: A note on two problems in connexion with graphs. Numerische Mathematik 1(1), 269–271 (1959)

    MathSciNet  CrossRef  MATH  Google Scholar 

  4. Howar, F., Bauer, O., Merten, M., Steffen, B., Margaria, T.: The Teachers’ Crowd: The Impact of Distributed Oracles on Active Automata Learning. In: Hähnle, R., et al. (eds.) ISoLA 2011 Workshops. CCIS, vol. 336, pp. 232–247. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  5. Jabbar, S.: External directed search. KI 21(1), 37–38 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  6. Jabbar, S.: External memory algorithms for state space exploration in model checking and action planning. PhD thesis (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  7. Kearns, M.J., Vazirani, U.V.: An Introduction to Computational Learning Theory. MIT Press, Cambridge (1994)

    Google Scholar 

  8. Maler, O., Pnueli, A.: On the Learnability of Infinitary Regular Sets. Information and Computation 118(2), 316–326 (1995)

    MathSciNet  CrossRef  MATH  Google Scholar 

  9. Merten, M., Howar, F., Steffen, B., Cassel, S., Jonsson, B.: Demonstrating Learning of Register Automata. In: Flanagan, C., König, B. (eds.) TACAS 2012. LNCS, vol. 7214, pp. 466–471. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  10. Merten, M., Steffen, B., Howar, F., Margaria, T.: Next Generation LearnLib. In: Abdulla, P.A., Leino, K.R.M. (eds.) TACAS 2011. LNCS, vol. 6605, pp. 220–223. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  11. Nerode, A.: Linear Automaton Transformations. Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society 9(4), 541–544 (1958)

    MathSciNet  CrossRef  MATH  Google Scholar 

  12. Niese, O.: An Integrated Approach to Testing Complex Systems. PhD thesis, University of Dortmund, Germany (2003)

    Google Scholar 

  13. Raffelt, H., Margaria, T., Steffen, B., Merten, M.: Hybrid test of web applications with webtest. In: TAV-WEB 2008: Proceedings of the 2008 Workshop on Testing, Analysis, and Verification of Web Services and Applications, pp. 1–7. ACM, New York (2008)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  14. Raffelt, H., Merten, M., Steffen, B., Margaria, T.: Dynamic testing via automata learning. Int. J. Softw. Tools Technol. Transf. 11(4), 307–324 (2009)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  15. Raffelt, H., Steffen, B., Berg, T., Margaria, T.: LearnLib: a framework for extrapolating behavioral models. Int. J. Softw. Tools Technol. Transf. 11(5), 393–407 (2009)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  16. Rivest, R.L., Schapire, R.E.: Inference of finite automata using homing sequences. Inf. Comput. 103(2), 299–347 (1993)

    MathSciNet  CrossRef  MATH  Google Scholar 

  17. Steffen, B., Howar, F., Merten, M.: Introduction to Active Automata Learning from a Practical Perspective. In: Bernardo, M., Issarny, V. (eds.) SFM 2011. LNCS, vol. 6659, pp. 256–296. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  18. Sulewski, D., Edelkamp, S., Kissmann, P.: Exploiting the computational power of the graphics card: Optimal state space planning on the gpu. In: Bacchus, F., Domshlak, C., Edelkamp, S., Helmert, M. (eds.) ICAPS. AAAI (2011)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

About this paper

Cite this paper

Merten, M., Howar, F., Steffen, B., Margaria, T. (2012). Automata Learning with On-the-Fly Direct Hypothesis Construction. In: Hähnle, R., Knoop, J., Margaria, T., Schreiner, D., Steffen, B. (eds) Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification, and Validation. ISoLA 2011. Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol 336. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-34781-8_19

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-34781-8_19

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-642-34780-1

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-642-34781-8

  • eBook Packages: Computer ScienceComputer Science (R0)