fMRI pp 239-267 | Cite as

The Perirhinal, Entorhinal, and Parahippocampal Cortices and Hippocampus: An Overview of Functional Anatomy and Protocol for Their Segmentation in MR Images

  • Sasa L. Kivisaari
  • Alphonse Probst
  • Kirsten I. Taylor
Chapter

Abstract

It is well established that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) plays a critical role in forming memories of autobiographical events and world knowledge. Converging neuroscientific research suggests that each of the MTL subregions – that is, the hippocampus proper and perirhinal, entorhinal, and parahippocampal cortices – also performs other mnemonic and non-mnemonic functions. This functional specialization is highly relevant for the clinical diagnosis of patients with acquired brain damage and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. This chapter briefly reviews the functional anatomy of the MTL and the neuropsychological syndrome of early Alzheimer’s disease. One of the greatest difficulties facing the continued neuroscientific and clinical investigation of the human MTL is the identification of its subregions on MR images. The last part of this chapter therefore describes the gross anatomy of the MTL and provides a protocol for the reliable segmentation of each subregion. The study of accurately anatomically delineated MTL subregions with different behavioral and imaging approaches is required to advance our understanding of the basic functions of the MTL and, correspondingly, the clinical relevance of lesions in this complex region.

Abbreviations

A

Anterior

Ab

Angular bundle (PHg white matter)

aCf

Anterior calcarine fissure

al

Alveus

Am

Amygdala

bG

Band of Giacomini

cf

Crus of the fornix

Cs

Collateral sulcus

di

Hippocampal digitations

ERc

Entorhinal cortex

Fg

Fusiform gyrus

fi

Fimbria

gA

Gyrus ambiens

gS

Gyrus of Schwalbe

HB

Hippocampal body

Hf

Hippocampal fissure

HH

Hippocampal head

Hs

Hippocampal sulcus

HT

Hippocampal tail

I

Inferior

ILg

Intralimbic gyrus

Is

Isthmus

ITg

Inferotemporal gyrus

L

Laterial

Lg

Lingual gyrus

li-gm

Limen insulae gray matter

li-wm

Limen insulae white matter

M

Medial

Mb

Mammillary body

MTL

Medial temporal lobe

OTs

Occipitotemporal sulcus

P

Posterior

Pu

Pulvinar

PHc

Parahippocampal cortex

PHg

Parahippocampal gyrus

PRc

Perirhinal cortex

qgc

Quadrigeminal cistern

Rs

Rhinal sulcus

S

Superior

SAs

Semiannular sulcus

SLg

Semilunar gyrus

Sp

Splenium

su

Subiculum

TLV

Temporal horn of lateral ventricle

TP

Temporal pole

TR

Transentorhinal cortex

U

Uncus

Ug

Uncinate gyrus

un

Uncal notch

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sasa L. Kivisaari
    • 1
  • Alphonse Probst
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kirsten I. Taylor
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of GeriatricsMemory Clinic, University Hospital BaselBaselSwitzerland
  2. 2.Department of NeuropathologyUniversity Hospital BaselBaselSwitzerland
  3. 3.Department of Experimental Psychology, Centre for Speech Language and the BrainUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK

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