Advertisement

Electron Beam Evaporated Nano-Crystalline V2O5 Thin Films for Electrochromic and Electrochemical Applications

  • P. Rosaiah
  • O. M. HussainEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Physics book series (SPPHY, volume 143)

Abstract

Vanadium pentoxide is one of the most widely investigated multifunctional materials for electro-chromic and electro-chemical device applications. Its layered and open structure makes this material in thin film form well suited for electro-chemical insertion reactions with the Li ions. In the present investigation, V2O5 thin films have been prepared by electron beam evaporation technique at a substrate temperature of 523 K in an oxygen partial pressure of 2 × 10−4 mbar. The XRD patterns exhibited predominant (001) diffraction orientation along with (200) and (400) characteristic peaks corresponding to orthorhombic phase of V2O5 with Pmnm space group. The estimated average grain size is about 90 nm. The optical absorption coefficient ‘α’ determined from the experimentally measured transmittance and reflectance data for V2O5 films was fund to give a better fit for the exponent n = 3/2 suggesting the direct forbidden transitions with an estimated optical band gap of 2.36 eV. Two sets of films were prepared with thickness of 300 nm on ITO coated glass for electrochromic analysis and 600 nm on metalized silicon for electrochemical insertion studies. The electron beam evaporated V2O5 thin films with thickness 300 nm showed a good reversible cyclic voltammogram on sweeping the potential downward and upward. A two step electrochromism i.e. yellow to green and green to deep blue was observed from reversible current—voltage curves. The electrochemical characteristics of V2O5 thin films with thickness 600 nm were examined in non-aqueous region. The film exhibited a discharge capacity of 70 μAh/(cm2–μm) at a current density of 10 μA/cm2. Annealing of these films at 673 K exhibited a better discharge capacity of 90 μAh/(cm2–μm).

Keywords

Nano-crystalline V2O5 thin films Electron beam evaporation Structural and electrochemical properties 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the University Grants Commision, New Delhi for providing the financial support.

References

  1. 1.
    A.A. Akl, Thermal annealing effect on the crystallization and optical dispersion of sprayed V2O5 thin films. J. Phys. Chem. Sol. 71, 223 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M.B. Sahana, C. Sudakar, C. Thapa, G. Lawes, V.M. Naik, R.J. Baird, G.W. Auner, R. Naik, K.R. Padmanabhan, Electrochemical properties of V2O5 thin films deposited by spin coating. Mater. Sci. Eng. 143, 42 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. Oukassi, R. Salot, J.P. Pereira-Ramos, Elaboration and characterization of crystalline rf deposited V2O5 positive electrode for thin film battery. Appl. Sur. Sci. 256, 149 (2009)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    L. Ottaviano, A. Pennisi, F. Simone, A.M. Salvi, Rf-sputtered electrochromic V2O5 films. Opt. Mater. 27, 307 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    G.J. Fang, Z.L. Liu, Y.Q. Wang, H.H. Liu, K.L. Yao, Oriented growth of V2O5 electrochromic thin films on transparent conductive glass by pulsed excimer laser ablation technique. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 33, 3018 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Chakraborty, H. Sakata, E. Yokoyama, M. Wakaki, D. Chakravorty, Laser induced forward transfer technique for maskless patterning of amorphous V2O5 thin films. Appl. Sur. Sci. 254, 638 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    V.V. Atuchin, B.M. Ayupov, V.A. Kochubey, L.D. Pokrovsky, C.V. Ramana, Y.M. Rumiantsev, Optical properties of textured V2O5/Si thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. Opt. Mater. 30, 1145 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Losurdo, D. Barreka, G. Bruno, E. Tondello, Spectroscopic ellipsometry of V2O5 nanocrystalline thin films. Thin Solid Films 384, 58 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    I. Quinzeni, S. Ferrari, E. Quartarone, P. Mustarelli, Structural, morphological and electrochemical properties of nanocrystalline thin films deposited by means of radiofrequency magnetron sputtering. J. Power Sources 196, 10228 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. Julien, E. Haro-Ponia towski, L. Eskobar-Alarcon, Growth of V2O5 thin films by pulsed laser deposition and their applications in lithium microbatteries. Mater. Sci. Eng. B, 65, 170 (1999)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    C.O. Avellaneda, Electrochromic performance of sol-gel deposited V2O5:Ta films. Mater. Sci. Eng. 138, 118 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Y. Iida, Y. Kaneko, Y. Kanno, Fabrication of pulsed laser deposited V2O5 thin films for electrochromic devices. J. Mater. Proc. Tech. 197, 261 (2008)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    C.V. Ramana, O.M. Hussain, S. Uthanna, B.S. Naidu, Influence of oxygen partial pressure on the optical properties of electron beam evaporated vanadium pentoxide thin films. Opt. Mater. 10, 101 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    C.V. Ramana, O.M. Hussain, B.S. Naidu, Growth and structure of electron beam evaporated V2O5 thin films. Mater. Chem. Phys. 50, 195 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    C.V. Ramana, O.M. Hussain, B.S. Naidu, P.J. Reddy, Spectroscopic characterization of electron beam evaporated V2O5 thin films. Thin Solid Films 305, 219 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    K.V. Madhuri, K.S. Rao, B.S. Naidu, O.M. Hussain, Characterization of laser ablated V2O5 thin films. J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Elec. 13, 426 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    C.V. Ramana, O.M. Hussain, R. Pinto, C. Julien, Microstructural feature of pulsed laser deposited V2O5 thin films. Appl. Sur. Sci. 207, 135 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A.M. Abo El Sound, B. Mansour, L.I. Soliman, Optical and electrical properties of V2O5 thin films. Thin Solid Films 247, 142 (1994)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    A.A. Akl, Effect of solution molarity on the characteristics of vanadium pentoxide thin films. Appl. Sur. Sci. 252, 8749 (2006)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Y. Fujita, K. Miyazaki, T. Tatsuyama, On the lectrochromism of evaporated V2O5 films. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, 1082 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    K. Harikrishna, O.M. Hussain,C.M. Julien, Electrochromic properties of nanocrystalline WO3 thin films grown on flexible substrates by plasma assisted evaporation technique. Appl. Phys. A. 99, 922 (2010)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Y.-S. Lin, C.-W. Tsai, Reactive sputtering deposition of V2O5-x on flexible PET/ITO substrates for electrochromic devices. Electrochem. Acta. 202, 5645 (2008)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Y.S. Yoon, J.S. Kim, S.H. Choi, Structural and electrochemical properties of vanadium oxide thin films grown by dc and rf reactive sputtering at room temperature. Thin Solid Films 460, 43 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Y.J. Park, K.S. Ryu, K.M. Kim, N-G. Park, M.G. Kang, S.H. Chang, Electrochemical properties of vanadium oxide thin films deposited by rf sputtering. Solid State Ionics 154, 234 (2002)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    C. Navone, R. Baddour-Hadjean, J.P. Pereira-Ramos, R. Salot, A kinetic study of electrochemical lithium insertion into oriented V2O5 thin films prepared by rf sputtering. Electrochim. Acta 53, 3331 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Thin Film Laboratory, Department of PhysicsSri Venkateswara UniversityTirupatiIndia

Personalised recommendations