Augmented Maps with Route Sketches

  • Padraig Corcoran
  • Peter Mooney
  • Michela Bertolotto
  • Basel Magableh
Part of the Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography book series (LNGC)


This article proposes a novel representation for route descriptions called an Augmented Route Sketch Map (ARSM). In this representation a route is composed of a sketch map drawn over a detailed base-map. The base-map has the effect of augmenting ones knowledge and in turn reduces the complexity of accurately representing and interpreting a route. This is demonstrated through a set of user trials. The proposed ARSM representation also facilitates the automatic parsing of route descriptions and in turn the transformation to other representations such as a turn-by-turn instructions.


Route description Sketch map 



Research presented in this paper was primarily funded by the Irish Research Council for Science Engineering and Technology (IRCSET) EMPOWER program. It was also in part funded by the Irish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) STRIVE programme (Grant 2008-FS-DM-14-S4) and a Strategic Research Cluster Grant (07/SRC/I1168) from Science Foundation Ireland under the National Development Plan.


  1. Agrawala M, Stolte C (2000) A design and implementation for effective computer-generated route maps. In: AAAI symposium on smart graphics, Stanford University, CA, pp 61–65Google Scholar
  2. Brakatsoulas S, Pfoser D, Salas R, Wenk C (2005) On map-matching vehicle tracking data. In: Proceedings of the 31st international conference on very large data bases, VLDB’05, VLDB Endowment, pp 853–864Google Scholar
  3. Broelemann K (2011) A system for automatic localization and recognition of sketch map objects. In: Understanding and processing sketch maps, proceedings of the Cosit workshop, pp 11–20Google Scholar
  4. Chipofya M, Wang J, Schwering A (2011) Towards cognitively plausible spatial representations for sketch map alignment. In: Egenhofer M, Giudice N, Moratz R, Worboys M (eds) Spatial information theory. Lecture notes in computer science, vol 6899. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 20–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chronis G, Skubic M (2003) Sketch-based navigation for mobile robots. In: Fuzzy systems, 2003. FUZZ’03. The 12th IEEE international conference on, vol 1. pp 284–289Google Scholar
  6. De Silva GC, Aizawa K (2010) Interacting with location-based multimedia using sketches. In: Proceedings of the ACM international conference on image and video retrieval, NY, pp 189–196Google Scholar
  7. Duckham M, Winter S, Robinson M (2010) Including landmarks in routing instructions. J Location Based Serv 4(1):28–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eccles DW, Walsh SE, Ingledew DK (2002) The use of heuristics during route planning by expert and novice orienteers. J Sports Sci 20(4):327–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hagedorn B, Dollner J (2008) Sketch-based navigation in 3D virtual environments. In: Butz A, Fisher B, Kruger A, Olivier P, Christie M (eds) Smart Graphics. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 5166. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 239–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Haque S, Kulik L, Klippel A (2007) Algorithms for reliable navigation and wayfinding. In: Barkowsky T, Knauff M, Ligozat G, Montello D (eds) Spatial cognition V reasoning, action, interaction, Lecture notes in computer science, vol 4387. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 308–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Igarashi T, Kadobayashi R, Mase K, Tanaka H (1998) Path drawing for 3D walkthrough. In: Proceedings of the 11th annual ACM symposium on user interface software and technology, NY, pp 173–174Google Scholar
  12. Klippel A, Tappe H, Habel C (2003) Pictorial representations of routes: chunking route segments during comprehension. In: Freksa C, Brauer W, Habel C, Wender K (eds) Spatial cognition III, Lecture notes in computer science, vol 2685. Springer, Heidelberg, p 1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kopf J, Agrawala M, Bargeron D, Salesin D, Cohen M (2010) Automatic generation of destination maps. ACM Trans Graph 29(6:158):1–158:12Google Scholar
  14. Lou Y, Zhang C, Zheng Y, Xie Y, Wang W, Huang Y (2009) Map-matching for low-sampling-rate gps trajectories. In: Proceedings of the 17th ACM SIGSPATIAL international conference on advances in geographic information systems, GIS’09, NY, pp 352–361Google Scholar
  15. Rehrl K, Hausler E, Leitinger S (2010) Comparing the effectiveness of GPS-enhanced voice guidance for pedestrians with metric—and landmark-based instruction sets. In: Fabrikant S, Reichenbacher T, van Kreveld M, Schlieder C (eds) Geographic information science, Springer, Heidelberg, vol 6292. pp 189–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Richter KF, Tomko M, Winter S (2008) A dialog-driven process of generating route directions. Comput Environ Urban Syst 32(3):233–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bell S and Archibald J (2011) Sketch mapping and geographic knowledge: what role for drawing ability? In: J Wang, K Broelemann, M Chipofya, A Schwering, Wallgrn JO (eds) An interdisciplinary approach to understanding and processing sketch maps, pp 5–14Google Scholar
  18. Shah D, Schneider J, Campbell M (2012) A sketch interface for robust and natural robot control. Proc IEEE 100(3):604–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Skubic M, Blisard S, Bailey C, Adams J, Matsakis P (2004) Qualitative analysis of sketched route maps: translating a sketch into linguistic descriptions. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern B Cybern 34(2):1275–1282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Tom AC, Tversky B (2012) Remembering routes: streets and landmarks. Appl Cogn Psychol 26(2):182–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Tversky B (2002) What do Sketches say about Thinking? In: Stahovic T, Landay J, Davis R (eds) Proceedings of AAAI spring symposium on sketch understanding, AMI press, CAGoogle Scholar
  22. Tversky B, Lee P (1999) Pictorial and verbal tools for conveying routes. In: Freksa C, Mark D (eds) Spatial information theory. Cognitive and computational foundations of geographic information science, Lecture notes in computer science, vol 1661. Springer, Heidelberg, p 752Google Scholar
  23. Westphal M, Renz J (2011) Evaluating and minimizing ambiguities in qualitative route instructions. In: Proceedings of the 19th ACM SIGSPATIAL international conference on advances in geographic information systems, NY, pp 171–180Google Scholar
  24. White C, Bernstein D, Kornhauser A (2000) Some map matching algorithms for personal navigation assistants. Transp Res Part C Emerg Technol 8(1–6):91–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ziegler J, Hussein T, Munter D, Hofmann J, Linder T (2011) Generating route instructions with varying levels of detail. In: International conference on automotive user interfaces and interactive vehicular applications, Salzburg, AustriaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Padraig Corcoran
    • 1
  • Peter Mooney
    • 2
    • 3
  • Michela Bertolotto
    • 1
  • Basel Magableh
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Computer Science and InformaticsUniversity College DublinDublinIreland
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceNational University of Ireland MaynoothMaynoothIreland
  3. 3.Department of Computer ScienceNational University of Ireland Maynooth (NUIM)Co. KildareIreland

Personalised recommendations