Android Emotions Revealed

  • Evgenios Vlachos
  • Henrik Schärfe
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7621)

Abstract

This work presents a method for designing facial interfaces for sociable android robots with respect to the fundamental rules of human affect expression. Extending the work of Paul Ekman towards a robotic direction, we follow the judgment-based approach for evaluating facial expressions to test in which case an android robot like the Geminoid|DK –a duplicate of an Original person- reveals emotions convincingly; when following an empirical perspective, or when following a theoretical one. The methodology includes the processes of acquiring the empirical data, and gathering feedback on them. Our findings are based on the results derived from a number of judgments, and suggest that before programming the facial expressions of a Geminoid, the Original should pass through the proposed procedure. According to our recommendations, the facial expressions of an android should be tested by judges, even in cases that no Original is engaged in the android face creation.

Keywords

Social robotics Geminoid androids emotions facial expressions emotional health 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Krippendorff, K.: The semantic turn-A new foundation for design. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group (2006)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Grudin, J.: The computer reaches out: The historical continuity of interface design. In: Chew, J.C., Whiteside, J. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: Empowering People (CHI 1990). ACM, NY (1990)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dourish, P.: Where The Action Is: The Foundations of Embodied Interaction. MIT Press (2001)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Breazeal, C.: Social Interactions in HRI:The Robot View. IEEE Transactions on Systems Man, Cybernetics and Systems-Part C 34(2), 181–186 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nishio, S., Ishiguro, H., Hagita, N.: Geminoid:Teleoperated Android of an Existing Person. In: Filho, A.C.D.P. (ed.) Humanoid Robots: New Developments, Vienna, pp. 343–352 (2007)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Reeves, B., Nass, C.: The Media Equation: How People Treat Computers, Television, and New Media Like Real People and Places. University Chicago Press (1996)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Breazeal, C.: Toward sociable robots. In: Robotics and Autonomous Systems, vol. 42(3-4), pp. 167–175. Elsevier (2003)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Picard, R.W., Klein, J.: Computers that Recognise and Respond to User Emotion: Theoretical and Practical Implications. Interacting with Computers 14(2), 141–169 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Personal Robotic Group, http://robotic.media.mit.edu/
  10. 10.
  11. 11.
    Hoffman, D.D.: Chapter 2: The Construction of Visual Reality. In: Blom, J.D., Sommer, I.E.C. (eds.) Hallucinations: Research and Practice, pp. 7–15. Springer US (2012)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Blom, J.D., Sommer, I.E.C.: Chapter 13, Hallucinations of Bodily Sensation. In: Blom, J.D., Sommer, I.E.C. (eds.) Hallucinations of Bodily Sensation, Part 2, pp. 157–169. Springer US (2012)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ekman, P., Friesen, W.V.: Unmasking the Face – A guide to recognising emotions from facial expressions. Malor Books, Cambridge (2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cohn, J.F.: Foundations of Human Computing: Facial Expression and Emotion. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI 2006), pp. 233–238. ACM, New York (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Banissy, M.J., Ward, J.: Mirror-touch synesthesia is linked with empathy. Nature Neuroscience 10, 815–816 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Scherer, K.R.: What are emotions? And how can they be measured? Social Science Information 44(4), 695–729 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Keltner, D., Ekman, P.: Facial expression of emotion. In: Lewis, M., Jones, J.H. (eds.) Handbook of Emotions, 2nd edn., pp. 236–248. Guilford Publications, New York (2000)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Behrendt, R.P.: Consciousness, Memory, and Hallucinations. In: Blom, J.D., Sommer, I.E.C. (eds.) Hallucinations: Research and Practice, part 1, pp. 17–31. Springer US (2012)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
  20. 20.
    Thrun, S.: Towards A Framework for Human-Robot Interaction. Journal Human-Computer Interaction 19(1), 9–24 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Takano, E., Matsumoto, Y., Nakamura, Y., Ishiguro, H., Sugamoto, K.: The Psychological Effects of Attendance of an Android on Communication. In: Khatib, O., Kumar, V., Pappas, G.J. (eds.) Experimental Robotics. STAR, vol. 54, pp. 221–228. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Becker-Asano, C., Wachsmuth, I.: Affective computing with primary and secondary emotions in a virtual human. Auton. Agent Multi-Agent Systems 20(1), 32–49 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
  24. 24.
    Shimada, M., Yoshikawa, Y., Asada, M., Saiwaki, N., Ishiguro, H.: Effects of Observing Eye Contact between a Robot and Another Person. International Journal of Social Robotics 3(2), 143–154 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Padgett, C., Cottrell, G.: Representing face images for emotion classification. In: Mozer, M., Jordan, M., Petsche, T. (eds.) Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, vol. 9. MIT Press, Cambridge (1997)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Taylor, J.: The Emerging Geographies of Virtual Worlds. Geographical Review, Cyberspace and Geographical Space 87(2), 172–192 (1997)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Turner, P.: An everyday account of witnessing. AI & Society: Special Issue: Witnessed Presence 27(1), 5–12 (2012)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Holz, T., Campbell, A.G., O’Hare, G.M.P., Stafford, J.W., Martin, A., Dragone, M.: MiRA—Mixed Reality Agents. International. Journal of Human – Computer Studies 69(4), 251–268 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    The American Statistical Association, http://www.amstat.org/
  30. 30.
    Cheok, A.D., Haller, M., Fernando, O.N.N., Wijesena, J.P.: Mixed Reality Entertainment and Art. The International Journal of Virtual Reality 8(2), 83–90 (2009)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Boucher, J.D., Ekman, P.: Facial Areas and Emotional Information. Journal of Communication 25(2), 21–29 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ekman, P.: Emotions Revealed-Understanding Faces and Feelings, Phoenix, UK (2003)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cohn, J.F., Ekman, P.: Measuring facial action by manual coding, facial EMG, and automatic facial image analysis. In: Harrigan, J.A., Rosenthal, R., Scherer, K. (eds.) Handbook of Nonverbal Behavior Research Methods in the Affective Sciences, pp. 9–64 (2005)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ekman, P.: Facial expression and emotion. American Psychologist 48(4), 384–392 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Picard, R.W.: Affective Computing: Challenges. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 59(1-2), 55–64 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Carmigniani, J., Furht, B.: Augmented Reality: An Overview. In: Furht, B. (ed.) Handbook of Augmented Reality, Part 1, pp. 3–46. Springer, New York (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Takeno, J., Mori, K., Naito, Y.: Robot Consciousness and Representation of Facial Expressions. In: 3rd International Conference on Sensing Technology (ICST 2008), pp. 569–574. IEEE Press (2008)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hiroshi Ishiguro Laboratory, http://www.geminoid.jp
  39. 39.
    Vardi, M.Y.: Is Moore’s Party Over? Communications of the ACM 54(11), 5 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Evgenios Vlachos
    • 1
  • Henrik Schärfe
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Communication and PsychologyAalborg UniversityDenmark

Personalised recommendations