Long-Term Interactions with Empathic Robots: Evaluating Perceived Support in Children
In this paper, we present an empathic model for social robots that aim to interact with children for extended periods of time. The application of this model to a scenario in which a social robot plays chess with children is described. To evaluate the proposed model, we ran a long-term study in an elementary school and measured children’s perception of social support. Our results suggest that children felt supported by the robot in a similar extent to what, in general, children feel supported by their peers. Another interesting finding was that the most valued form of social support was esteem support (reinforcing the other person’s sense of competence and self-esteem).
KeywordsEmpathy Social Support Long-term Interaction
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 3.Cramer, H., Goddijn, J., Wielinga, B., Evers, V.: Effects of (in)accurate empathy and situational valence on attitudes towards robots. In: ACM/IEEE Int. Conf. on Human-Robot Interaction, pp. 141–142. ACM (2010)Google Scholar
- 4.Cutrona, C., Suhr, J., MacFarlane, R.: Interpersonal transactions and the psychological sense of support. Personal Relationships and Social Support, 30–45 (1990)Google Scholar
- 6.Fogg, B.J., Nass, C.: Silicon sycophants: The effects of computers that flatter. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies (1997)Google Scholar
- 7.Gordon, A.: Assessing Social Support in Children: Development and Initial Validation of the Social Support Questionnaire for Children. PhD thesis, University of Houston (2011)Google Scholar
- 8.Hoffman, M.L.: Empathy and moral development: Implications for caring and justice. Cambridge Univ. Press (2001)Google Scholar
- 11.Leite, I., Martinho, C., Pereira, A., Paiva, A.: As time goes by: Long-term evaluation of social presence in robotic companions. In: Robot and Human Interactive Communication, RO-MAN 2009, pp. 669–674. IEEE (2009)Google Scholar
- 15.Saerbeck, M., Schut, T., Bartneck, C., Janse, M.: Expressive robots in education: varying the degree of social supportive behavior of a robotic tutor. In: Proceedings of CHI 2010, pp. 1613–1622. ACM (2010)Google Scholar