It might appear unusual to start a detailed discussion of the various application areas of industrial image processing with positioning instead of object recognition since an object must first be found before its position can be determined. However, object recognition is a rather broad term and frequently necessitates a multitude of functions to be able to assign objects to a category. Positioning, however, is structurally speaking—not necessarily algorithmically—a rather simple affair as soon as the object in question has been found. The only necessary prerequisite is the segmentation of a reference object. The main reason to begin with this topic is that it represents an absolutely essential “auxiliary science”.