The purpose of this research is to explore and understand corporate social responsibility (CSR) priorities in the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) of the industrial sector of Sialkot in Pakistan. The industrial sector of Sialkot is mainly involved in the production and supplying of sports, leather and surgical products for global companies. We used a qualitative approach to explore CSR priorities among SMEs. Informants were identified using purposive sampling. In-depth interviews were conducted with the senior managers, owners and executives of SMEs in the Sialkot industrial sector of Pakistan in three main industries namely; sports, surgical and leather. The findings of the study suggest philanthropy as a key ethical and social priority and CSR dimension supported by SMEs. Main dimensions of CSR in the context of Sialkot industrial sector SMEs were social (philanthropy), economic, legal and environment. In terms of CSR dimensions priorities, differences exist due to the nature of the specific industry and its protocols as data were collected from three different sub industrial sectors within the Sialkot industrial sector.
- Small And Medium Enterprises (SMEs)
- Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
- SME Sector
- Philanthropic Activities
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout
Purchases are for personal use onlyLearn about institutional subscriptions
Pakistani currency termed as Rupee plural Rupees.
Anderson, R. (2007). Thematic content analysis (TCA). Descriptive presentation of qualitative data. Retrieved from https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/36098984/Thematic_Content_Analysis_manuscript.pdf.
Arli, D. I., & Lasmono, H. K. (2010). Consumers’ perception of corporate social responsibility in a developing country. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 34(1), 46–51.
Aupperle, K. E., Simmons III, F. B., & Acar, W. (1990). An empirical investigation into how entrepreneurs view their social responsibilities. In 1990 Proceedings of the Academy of Management (pp. 154–156).
Awan, U., Kraslawski, A., & Huiskonen, J. (2017). Understanding the relationship between stakeholder pressure and sustainability performance in manufacturing firms in Pakistan. Procedia Manufacturing, 11, 768–777.
Bano, S., Asif, A. F., Saadat, S., & Muhammad, N. (2018). Socioeconomic factors of depression among females visiting outpatient clinic in district Ghizar, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan: A pilot study. Khyber Medical University Journal, 10(1).
Blindheim, B. T., & Langhelle, O. (2010). A reinterpretation of the principles of CSR: A pragmatic approach. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 17(2), 107–117.
Business for Social Responsibility. (2003). Overview of Corporate Social Responsibility. Retrieved from http://www.bsr.org/BSRResources/IssueBriefDetail.cfm?DocumentID=48809.
Carroll, A. B. (1979). A three-dimensional conceptual model of corporate performance. Academy of Management Review, 4(4), 497–505.
Carroll, A. B. (1991). The pyramid of corporate social responsibility: Toward the moral management of organizational stakeholders. Business Horizons, 34(4), 39–48.
Dahlsrud, A. (2008). How corporate social responsibility is defined: An analysis of 37 definitions. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 15(1), 1–13.
Das, M., & Rangarajan, K. (2017). Corporate sustainability as a business strategy in SMEs-A literature review in the emerging market context. In Proceedings of International Conference on Strategies in Volatile and Uncertain Environment for Emerging Markets (pp. 505-511), July 14–15. Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi.
Davies, I. A., & Crane, A. (2010). Corporate social responsibility in small-and medium-size enterprises: Investigating employee engagement in fair trade companies. Business Ethics, 19(2), 126–139.
Deakins, D., & Freel, M. (1998). Entrepreneurial learning and the growth process in SMEs. The Learning Organization, 5(3), 144–155.
Dixit, S., Yadav, A., Dwivedi, P. D., & Das, M. (2015). Toxic hazards of leather industry and technologies to combat threat: A review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 87, 39–49.
Duan, Y., Mullins, R., & Hamblin, D. (2001). Training for e-commerce success in SMEs. In Managing Information Technology in Small Business: Challenges and Solutions: Challenges and Solutions (p. 334). IGI Global.
Hadjimanolis, A. (2017). A barriers approach to corporate social responsibility (CSR) adoption in SMEs: The case of Cyprus. In W. Visser, M. McIntosh, & C. Middleton (Eds.), Corporate citizenship in Africa. Abingdon: Taylor & Francis.
Handfield, R. B., Krause, D. R., Scannell, T. V, & Monczka, R. M. (2006). Avoid the pitfalls in supplier development. In Supply chains and total product systems: A reader (Vol. 58).
Jamal, N. (2017). Sialkot’s share in exports. Dawn. Retrieved from https://www.dawn.com/news/1330226.
Jenkins, H. (2006). Small business champions for corporate social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 67(3), 241–256.
Jenkins, H. (2009). A ‘business opportunity‘ model of corporate social responsibility for small-and medium-sized enterprises. Business Ethics: A European Review, 18(1), 21–36.
Ketola, T., Blombäck, A., & Wigren, C. (2009). Challenging the importance of size as determinant for CSR activities. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 20(3), 255–270.
Khattak, A., Haworth, N., Stringer, C., & Benson-Rea, M. (2017). Is social upgrading occurring in South Asia’s apparel industry? Critical Perspectives on International Business, 13(3), 226–243.
Khattak, A., & Stringer, C. (2017). Environmental upgrading in Pakistan’s sporting goods industry in global value chains: A question of progress? Business & Economic Review, 9(1), 43–64.
Khattak, A., Stringer, C., Benson-Rea, M., & Haworth, N. (2015). Environmental upgrading of apparel firms in global value chains: Evidence from Sri Lanka. Competition & Change, 19(4), 317–335.
Laskar, N., Maji, S. G., & Ortiz-Martinez, E. (2016). Corporate sustainability reporting practices in India: myth or reality? Social Responsibility Journal, 12(4), 625–641.
Laudal, T. (2011). Drivers and barriers of CSR and the size and internationalization of firms. Social Responsibility Journal, 7(2), 234–256.
Lepoutre, J., & Heene, A. (2006). Investigating the impact of firm size on small business social responsibility: A critical review. Journal of Business Ethics, 67(3), 257–273.
Manuere, F., & Phiri, M. (2016). The relationship between CSR meaning and CSR practices: The case of SMES. Corporate Ownership & Control, 13(4), 103–109.
Matten, D., & Moon, J. (2008). ‘Implicit’ and ‘explicit’ CSR: A conceptual framework for a comparative understanding of corporate social responsibility. Academy of Management Review, A, 33(2), 404–424.
Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research & evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Perrini, F., Russo, A., & Tencati, A. (2007). CSR strategies of SMEs and large firms. Evidence from Italy. Journal of Business Ethics, 74(3), 285–300.
Shiozawa, S. (1995). Philanthropy as a corporate strategy. Japanese Economic Review, 46(4), 367–382.
Srinivasan, S., & Bedi, A. S. (2007). Domestic violence and dowry: Evidence from a South Indian village. World Development, 35(5), 857–880.
State Bank of Pakistan. (2013). Prudential regulations for small & medium enterprise infrastructure. Karachi: Housing & SME Finance Department, Karachi.
Turyakira, P. K. (2018). Corporate social responsibility activities that influence customer loyalty of SMEs. International Journal of Business and Management, 13(6), 255–266.
Waddock, S. (2004). Parallel universes: Companies, academics, and the progress of corporate citizenship. Business and Society Review, 109(1), 5–42.
Wahga, A. I., Blundel, R., & Schaefer, A. (2018). Understanding the drivers of sustainable entrepreneurial practices in Pakistan’s leather industry: A multi-level approach. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 24(2), 382–407.
Worthington, I., Ram, M., & Jones, T. (2006). Exploring corporate social responsibility in the UK Asian small business community. Journal of Business Ethics, 67(2), 201–217.
Editors and Affiliations
Appendix: Interview Questions
Appendix: Interview Questions
What CSR activities are important for your firm?
What CSR activities do you prefer as a manger and why?
Did you have any pre-defined CSR goals?
Why would you initiate any CSR project?
Why are you involved in specific CSR activities and which areas you have invested in?
What are the key CSR activities in which your firm is engaged?
What CSR practices your firm would prefer to engage in?
© 2019 Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
Awan, U., Khattak, A., Kraslawski, A. (2019). Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Priorities in the Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) of the Industrial Sector of Sialkot, Pakistan. In: Golinska-Dawson, P., Spychała, M. (eds) Corporate Social Responsibility in the Manufacturing and Services Sectors. EcoProduction. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-33851-9_15
Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
Print ISBN: 978-3-642-33850-2
Online ISBN: 978-3-642-33851-9