Type II Toxin-Antitoxins Loci: The relBE Family

  • Kenn Gerdes


relBE of Escherichia coli K-12 is a paradigm TA locus. Here, I describe the discovery of relBE and review the genetic, physiological, biochemical and structural analyses that have led to important insights into TA biology. Five relBE homologues of K-12 are also described while the 6th (mqsRA) is treated in a separate Chapter. Finally, a discussion of the possible biological functions of relBE and other type II TA loci sets the stage for future work on prokaryotic type II TA loci.


Plasmid Stabilization RelE Homolog Persister Cell Brucella Abortus Conditional Cooperativity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was supported by the Wellcome Trust. I thank members of the Gerdes group and of the Centre for Bacterial Cell Biology for friendly and stimulating discussions.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Centre for Bacterial Cell BiologyNewcastle UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK

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