Optimization of a Short-Range Proximity Effect Correction Algorithm in E-Beam Lithography Using GPGPUs
The e-beam lithography is used to provide high resolution circuit patterning for circuit fabrication processes. However, due to electron scattering in resist and substrate it occurs an undesired exposure of regions which are adjacent to the actual exposed regions. These proximity effects represent an essential limitation to the attainable lithographic resolution. Since these effects can be described mathematically, different approaches were investigated to simulate and correct them. The developed algorithms provide the required precision for printing of circuit patterns, but on the other side demand a tremendous computational power. Modern GPGPUs consist of hundreds of processing cores and provide the same computational power as a small cluster. Therefore, the required computational power of correction algorithms may be achieved using GPGPUs. In this paper, we evaluate the achievable performance for a short-range proximity effect correction algorithm using GPGPUs.
KeywordsE-beam lithography Proximity effect correction PEC short-range proximity effect GPGPUs
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.Boegli, V., Johnson, L., Kao, H., Veneklasen, L., Hofmann, U., Finkelstein, I., Stovall, S., Rishton, S.: Implementation of real-time proximity effect correction in a raster shaped beam tool. Papers from the 44th International Conference on Electron, Ion, and Photon Beam Technology and Nanofabrication, vol. 18, pp. 3138–3142 (November 2000)Google Scholar
- 3.Bojko, R.J., Li, J., He, L., Baehr-Jones, T., Hochberg, M., Aida, Y.: Electron beam lithography writing strategies for low loss, high confinement silicon optical waveguides. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures 29(6), 06F3091–06F3096 (2011)Google Scholar
- 4.Crandall, R., Hofmann, U., Lozes, R.L.: Contrast limitations in electron-beam lithography. Papers from the 43rd International Conference on Electron, Ion, and Photon Beam Technology and Nanofabrication, AVS, vol. 17, pp. 2945–2947 (November 1999)Google Scholar
- 8.Klimpel, T., Schulz, M., Zimmermann, R., Stock, H.-J., Zepka, A.: Model based hybrid proximity effect correction scheme combining dose modulation and shape adjustments. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures 29(6),06F315 – 06F315 (2011)Google Scholar
- 9.Lee, S.-Y., Anupongpaibool, N.: Optimization of distributed implementation of grayscale electron-beam proximity effect correction on a temporally heterogeneous cluster. In: Proceedings of the 19th IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium (IPDPS 2005) - Workshop 13, vol. 14. IEEE Computer Society (2005)Google Scholar
- 11.Ogino, K., Hoshino, H., Machida, Y., Osawa, M., Arimoto, H., Takahashi, K., Yamashita, H.: High-performance proximity effect correction for sub-70 nm design rule system on chip devices in 100 kv electron projection lithography. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures 21(6), 2663–2667 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Seidler, R., Schmidt, M., Schäfer, A., Fey, D.: Comparison of selected parallel path planning algorithms on gpgpus and multi-core. In: Proceedings of the Annual International Conference on Advances in Distributed and Parallel Computing, pp. A133–A139 (November 2010)Google Scholar
- 21.Yamashita, H., Yamamoto, J., Koba, F., Arimoto, H.: Proximity effect correction using blur map in electron projection lithography. In: Advanced Lithography Applications, vol. 23, pp. 3188–3192 (December 2005)Google Scholar