Skip to main content

Optically-Pumped Magnetometers for MEG

Abstract

Optically-pumped magnetometers (OPMs) have seen rapid progress over the last decade in terms of performance and technology development. As highly sensitive room-temperature magnetometers they present several advantages over superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensors, such as the possibility for conformal geometries and low-maintenance systems. We review the state of the art and different types of low-field OPMs, as well as the first magnetoencephalography (MEG) demonstrations with OPMs. Several challenges remain, such as the demonstration of OPM multichannel systems, their limited dynamic range, and the demonstration of gradiometric operation to name just a few. Certainly OPMs present a promising technology to complement existing SQUID-based installations.

Keywords

  • Optically pumped magnetometer
  • Magnetoencephalography
  • Superconducting quantum interference device
  • Magnetocardiography
  • Multichannel
  • Electron spin resonance
  • Micro-electromechanical system
  • Alkali-metal vapor cell
  • Atomic magnetometer
  • Optical magnetometer

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-33045-2_49
  • Chapter length: 7 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   139.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-642-33045-2
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   179.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  • Allred JC, Lyman RN, Kornack TW, Romalis MV (2002) High-sensitivity atomic magnetometer unaffected by spin-exchange relaxation. Phys Rev Lett 89:130801

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bison G, Castagna N, Hofer A, Knowles P, Schenker JL, Kasprzak M, Saudan H, Weis A (2009) A room temperature 19-channel magnetic field mapping device for cardiac signals. Appl Phys Lett 95:173701

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brookes M, Singh K (2013) Methods in mind. Phys World 25:39–44

    Google Scholar 

  • Dang HB, Maloof AC, Romalis MV (2010) Ultrahigh sensitivity magnetic field and magnetization measurements with an atomic magnetometer. Appl Phys Lett 97:151110

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dupont-Roc J, Haroche S, Cohen-Tannoudji C (1969) Detection of very weak magnetic fields (10–9 gauss) by Rb zero-field level crossing resonances. Phys Lett A 28:628–639

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Happer W (1972) Optical pumping. Rev Mod Phys 44:169–249

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Happer W, Tang H (1973) Spin-exchange shift and narrowing of magnetic resonance lines in optically pumped alkali vapors. Phys Rev Lett 31:273

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson C, Schwindt PDD, Weisend M (2010) Magnetoencephalography with a two-color pump-probe, fiber-coupled atomic magnetometer. Appl Phys Lett 97:243703

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Knappe S, Gerginov V, Schwindt PDD, Shah V, Robinson H, Hollberg L, Kitching J (2005) Atomic vapor cells for chip-scale atomic clocks with improved long-term frequency stability,”. Opt Lett 30:2351–2353

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Knappe S, Sander TH, Kosch O, Wiekhorst F, Kitching J, Trahms L (2010) Cross-validation of microfabricated atomic magnetometers with superconducting quantum interference devices for biomagnetic applications. Appl Phys Lett 97:133703

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Livanov MN, Kozolov AN, Sinelnikova SE, Kholodov JA, Markin VP, Gorbach AM, Korinewsky AV (1981) Record of the human magnetocardiogram by the quantum gradiometer with optical pumping. Adv Cardiol 28:78–80

    Google Scholar 

  • Mhaskar R, Knappe S, Kitching J (2012) A low-power, high-sensitivity micromachined optical magnetometer. Appl Phys Lett 101:241105

    Google Scholar 

  • Sander TH, Preusser J, Mhaskar R, Kitching J, Trahms L, Knappe S (2012) Magnetoencephalography with a chip-scale atomic magnetometer. Biomed Opt Express 3:981–990

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Savukov IM, Zotev VS, Volegov PL, Espy MA, Matlashov AN, Gomez JJ, Kraus RH Jr (2009) MRI with an atomic magnetometer suitable for practical imaging applications. J Mag Resonanace 199:188–191

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Seltzer SJ, Romalis MV (2004) Unshielded three-axis vector operation of a spin-exchange-relaxation-free atomic magnetometer. Appl Phys Lett 85:4804–4806

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Shah V, Knappe S, Schwindt PDD, Kitching J (2007) Subpicotesla atomic magnetometry with a microfabricated vapour cell. Nat Photonics 1:649–652

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Taue S, Sugihara Y, Kobayashi T, Ichihara S, Ishikawa K, Mizutani N (2010) Development of a highly sensitive optically pumped atomic magnetometer for biomagnetic field measurements: a phantom study. IEEE Trans Magn 46:3635–3638

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wyllie R, Kauer M, Wakai RT, Walker TG (2012) Optical magnetometer array for fetal magnetocardiography. Opt Lett 37(12):2247–2249

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Xia H, Baranga ABA, Hoffman D, Romalis MV (2006) Magnetoencephalography with an atomic magnetometer. Appl Phys Lett 89:211104

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Xu S, Yashchuk VV, Donaldson MH, Rochester SM, Budker D, Pines A (2006) “Magnetic resonance imaging with an optical atomic magnetometer. Proc Natl Acad Sci 103:12668–12671

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Svenja Knappe .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Knappe, S., Sander, T., Trahms, L. (2014). Optically-Pumped Magnetometers for MEG. In: Supek, S., Aine, C. (eds) Magnetoencephalography. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-33045-2_49

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-33045-2_49

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-642-33044-5

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-642-33045-2

  • eBook Packages: EngineeringEngineering (R0)