Type-2 Fuzzy Grammar in Language Evolution

  • Juan Paulo Alvarado-Magaña
  • Antonio Rodríguez-Díaz
  • Juan R. Castro
  • Oscar Castillo
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI, volume 451)


This paper proposes a new approach to simulating language evolution, it expands on the original work done by Lee and Zadeh on Fuzzy Grammars and introduces a Type-2 Fuzzy Grammar. Ants in an Ant Colony Optimization algorithm are given the ability of embedding a message on the pheromone using a Type-2 Fuzzy Grammar. These ants are able to gradually adopt a foreign language by adjusting the grades of membership of their grammar. Results that show the effect of uncertainty in a language are given.


ACO Language Evolution Type-2 Fuzzy Grammar 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juan Paulo Alvarado-Magaña
    • 1
  • Antonio Rodríguez-Díaz
    • 1
  • Juan R. Castro
    • 1
  • Oscar Castillo
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Chemical Sciences and EngineeringAutonomous University of Baja CaliforniaTijuanaMexico
  2. 2.Tijuana Institute of TechnologyTijuanaMexico

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