Advertisement

Innovative Pretreatment Process for Puffing of Red Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor)

  • T. Poongodi Vijayakumar
  • M. Deepa
  • S. Sharmila
Chapter
Part of the Springer Earth System Sciences book series (SPRINGEREARTH)

Abstract

The present study was aimed to identify the innovative pretreatment process for puffing of red sorghum. The selected whole and dehusked sorghum grain was studied for its general characteristics prior to puffing treatments. The whole and dehusked grains were pretreated with plain water, standard liquid mixture, citric acid, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate, calcium carbonate and oil. The puffed products were analyzed for their physical and functional characteristics, nutritional composition, and sensory profile. The techno-economic feasibility of the process was also evaluated. The dehusking had significant influence on puffing yield and other determined characteristics of the puffed sorghum. Low puffing yield on sodium carbonate treatment and maximum yield on treatment with standard liquid mixture were observed. The expansion volume and puffing yield were high in pretreated grains and have shown high bulk density, water absorption and oil absorption capacity, swelling power, and moisture. The puffing process had significant influence on protein availability, ash and crude fiber content. The total cost of production of 1 kg of puffed sorghum was Rs. 57.00 and 63.00 respectively for whole and dehusked puffed sorghum grain.

Keywords

Expansion Volume Calcium Carbonate Sodium Carbonate Water Absorption Capacity High Bulk Density 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. AACC (1995) Cereal laboratory methods. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St Paul, pp 89–96Google Scholar
  2. Adebiyi AO, Adebiye AP, Olaniyi EO (2008) Nutritional composition of Sorghum bicolor starch hydrolyzed with amylase from Rhizopus species. Afr J Biotechnol 4:1089–1094Google Scholar
  3. ASAE (2001) Cubes, pellets and crumbles – definitions and methods for determining density, durability and moisture content, 48th edn. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St JosephGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhat GTCM, Sharma K (1989) Organoleptic evaluations of nutritious dhal vadas. J Agric Res 26:334–338Google Scholar
  5. Eldredge JC, Thomas WI (1959) Popcorn – its production, processing and utilizations. Iowa Agric Exp Stn Bull P127:1Google Scholar
  6. Fast RB, Elwood T, Caldwell F (1990) Manufacturing technology of ready-to-eat cereals, breakfast cereals and how they are made. Am Assoc Cereal Chem 23:45–57Google Scholar
  7. Galiba M, Rooney LW, Waniska RD, Miller FR (2002) The preparation of sorghum and millet conscious in West Africa. Cereal Foods World 32:878–884Google Scholar
  8. Heki T, Yasumatsu SK, Funakoshi O (1972) Method for puffing gelatinized rice grains. United States Patent Office, Patented Oct 31, 3,701,667Google Scholar
  9. Hiser AR (2000) Nutrient composition of millet (Pennisetum typhoides) grains and malt. J Agric Food Chem 29:1247–1248Google Scholar
  10. Hoseney RC (1994) Principle of cereal science and technology. AACC, St. PaulGoogle Scholar
  11. Iren-Leder I (2004) Sorghum and millets, in cultivated plants, primarily as food sources. In: Füleky G (ed) Encyclopedia of life support systems. Eolss Publishers, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  12. Janicki NA, Walczak J (1960) Wateriness in meat and methods for its determination. Prexemysl Rolny I Spozywexy (1954) 8: 197–201 as cited in Adv Food Res 10:355–394Google Scholar
  13. Lara N, Rules J (2002) Popping of amaranth grain (Amaranthus caudatus) and its effect on the functional, nutritional and sensory properties. J Sci Food Agric 82:797–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Leach HW, Schoch TJ (1961) Structure of the starch granule. Cereal Chem 65:34–38Google Scholar
  15. Leach HW, McCowen MC, Schoch LD (1959) Structure of the starch granule, swelling and solubility patterns of various starches. Cereal Chem 36:534–544Google Scholar
  16. Lewis D, Lorenz K, Tribelhorn R (1992) Puffing quality of experimental varieties of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum). Cereal Chem 69:359–365Google Scholar
  17. Mc-Neil W, Potter GD, Riggs JK, Rooney LW (1975) Chemical and physical properties of processed sorghum grain carbohydrates. J Anim Sci 40:335–341Google Scholar
  18. Mohesenin NN (1970) Physical properties of plant and animal materials. Gordan and Breach Science Publication, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Nagappa MG (2007) Process for preparation of expanded millet. United States Patent Application Publication, Pub. No: US 2007/o160727 A1Google Scholar
  20. Premavalli KS, Satyanarayanaswamy YS, Madhura CV, Majumdar TK, Bawa AS (2005) Effect of pretreatments on the physico-chemical properties of puffed ragi (finger millet) flour. J Food Sci Technol 42:443–445Google Scholar
  21. Ranganna S (2004) Handbook of analysis and quality control for fruit and vegetable products. Tata McGraw Hill, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  22. Sadasivam S, Manickam A (2005) Biochemical methods, 2nd edn. New Age International Private Ltd., New Delhi, pp 8–57Google Scholar
  23. Singh P, Singh G, Srivastava S, Agarwal P (2005) Physico-chemical characteristic of wheat flour and millet flour blends. J Food Sci Technol 42:340–343Google Scholar
  24. Sosulski F, Humbert ES, Bui K, Jones JD (1976) Functional properties of rapeseed flour, concentrates and isolates. J Food Sci 41:1349–1379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Thompson RA, Issac GW (1967) Porosity determination of grains and seeds with air comparison pycometer. Trans ASAE 10:693–696Google Scholar
  26. Wang JC, Kinsella JE (1976) Functional properties of novel proteins: alfalfa leaf protein. J Food Sci 41:286–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Poongodi Vijayakumar
    • 1
  • M. Deepa
    • 1
  • S. Sharmila
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food SciencePeriyar UniversitySalemIndia

Personalised recommendations