Advertisement

Formal and Informal Networks in Organizations

  • Silvana Stefani
  • Anna Torriero
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI, volume 448)

Abstract

Through the study case of a restructuring process of a company, we illustrate how to detect informal networks in a company. A survey was conducted by questionnaires. We made use of eigencentrality applied to the resulting graphs. Based on the concept of hubs and authorities, we compare the informal relationships within the company with the formal structure and comment the roles and their significance.

Keywords

organizational networks eigenvector centrality 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Anklam, P.: Knowledge Management: the Collaboration Thread. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 28(6) (2002)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anklam, P.: KM and the Social Network, Knowledge Management Magazine (2003)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anklam, P., Cross, R., Gulas, V.: Expanding the field of vision. The Learning Organization 12(6) (2005)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bonacich, P.: Power and centrality: A family of measures. American Journal of Sociology 92, 1170–1182 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cross, R.: The hidden power of social networks: understanding how work gets really done in an organization. Harvard Business School Press (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cross, R., Thomas, R.: How Top Talent Uses Networks and Where Rising Stars Get Trapped. Organizational Dynamics, 165–180 (2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    De Toni, A.F., Nonino, F.: The key roles in the informal organization: a network perspective analysis. The Learning Organization 10(17), 86–103 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Farahat, A., Lofaro, T., Miller, J.C., Rae, G., Ward, L.A.: Authority rankings from HITS, PageRank and SALSA: existence, uniqueness and effect of inizialization. SIAM Journal of Scientific Computing 27(4), 1181–1201 (2006)MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Friedkin, N.E.: Structural Bases of Interpersonal Influence in Groups: A Longitudinal Case Study. American Sociological Review 58(6), 861–872 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Golub, G., Van Loan, C.: Matrix computations, 3rd edn. The Johns Hopkins University Press, London (1996)MATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Grassi, R., Stefani, S., Torriero, A.: Using bipartite graphs to assess power in organizational networks: A case study. In: Rotundo, G. (ed.) Dynamics of Socioeconomic Systems, DYSES Journal, pp. 199–216 (2011) ISSN 1852-379X Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Grassi, R., Stefani, S., Torriero, A.: Centrality in Organizational Networks. International Journal of Intelligent Systems 25(3), 253–265 (2010)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Grassi, R., Stefani, S., Torriero, A.: Extremal Properties of Graphs and Eigencentrality in Trees with a given Degree Sequence. The Journal of Mathematical Sociology 34(2), 115–135 (2010)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Grassi, R., Scapellato, R., Stefani, S., Torriero, A.: Betweenness centrality: extremal values and structural properties. In: Naimzada, A.K., Stefani, S., Torriero, A. (eds.) Networks, Topology and Dynamics - Theory and Applications to Economics and Social Systems. Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems, vol. 613, pp. 161–176. Springer, Heidelberg (2009) ISBN: 978-3-540-68407-7 Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    D’Errico, M., Grassi, R., Stefani, S., Torriero, A.: Shareholding Networks and Centrality: an Application to the Italian Financial Market. In: Naimzada, A.K., Stefani, S., Torriero, A. (eds.) Networks, Topology and Dynamics - Theory and Applications to Economics and Social Systems, vol. 613, pp. 215–228. Springer, Heidelberg (2009) ISBN: 978-3-540-68407-7Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Grassi, R., Stefani, S., Torriero, A.: Some Results on Eigenvector Centrality. The Journal of Mathematical Sociology 31, 237–248 (2007)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Harary, F.: Graph theory. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1969)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Horn, R.A., Johnson, C.R.: Matrix Analysis. Cambridge University Press (1985)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kleinberg, J.M.: Authorative Sources in a Hyperlinked Environment. Journal of the ACM 46(5), 604–632 (1999)MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Miller, J.C., Rae, G., Schaefer, F., Ward, L.A., Farahat, A., LoFaro, T.: Modifications of Kleinberg’s HITS algorithm using matrix exponentiation and web log records. In: Proceedings of the 24th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, pp. 444–445 (2001)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Golub, G., van Loan, C.: Matrix computations, 3rd edn. The Johns Hopkins University Press, London (1996)MATHGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schott, J.R.: Matrix Analysis for Statistics, 2nd edn. John Wiley & Sons, HoboKen (2005)MATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento Metodi QuantitativiUniversità Milano BicoccaMilanoItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Econometria e MatematicaUniversitá Cattolica del S.C.- MilanoMilanoItaly

Personalised recommendations