Drought Response in Forest Trees: From the Species to the Gene

  • I. ArandaEmail author
  • E. Gil-Pelegrín
  • A. Gascó
  • M. A. Guevara
  • J. F. Cano
  • M. De Miguel
  • J. A. Ramírez-Valiente
  • J. J. Peguero-Pina
  • P. Perdiguero
  • A. Soto
  • M. T. Cervera
  • C. Collada


Forest tree species, considering their long lifespan, symbolize one of the best biological examples of adaptation to a frequently changing harsh terrestrial environment. The adaptation to environments with water scarcity was the first challenge in the evolution of terrestrial photosynthetic organisms, and prompted the development of strategies and mechanisms to cope with drought. In this respect, the particular evolution and life history of forest tree species have brought about a plethora of specific adaptations to dry environments. The presence of a hydraulic system for long distance water transport and the need of maintaining functional tissues and organs for long periods of time are two important characteristics making forest tree species singular organisms within the plant kingdom. Selective pressure has prompted a variety of strategies in the control of water losses to maintain the functionality of the hydraulic system without compromising the carbon balance of the plant. These and other physiological responses focussed to increase the dehydration tolerance of tissues (e.g., osmotic adjustment) have played an important role in the development of specific adaptations under water limiting conditions. The adaptive changes are observable at different scales: from the population to the species, from the individual to the gene. The advance of high-throughput technologies will enable to unveil the complex interplay between phenotype and genotype. Genomic, proteomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic approaches are beginning to bring light to the molecular basis of adaptation to drought in forest tree species. These new technologies, combined with more traditional approaches, will improve our current knowledge of the functional and molecular basis underlying adaptation and evolution of forest tree species living under dry environments. In this respect, this chapter covers some aspects of adaptation to drought at different integrative levels, from an ecophysiological perspective to a molecular-based point of view.


Quantitative Trait Locus Drought Stress Water Stress Phenotypic Plasticity Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was supported by funding from the Spanish projects ECOFISEPI AGL2011-25365, MAPINSEQ AGL2009-10496, SUM2008-62500004-C03-01, as well as the transnational project Plant-KBBE PLE2009-0016. We thank Drs. J. Voltas and F. Ewers for a previous critical reading of this work. Authors are grateful to the anonymous reviewer that improved a first version of this contribution.


  1. Aasamaa K, Sober A, Rahi M (2001) Leaf anatomical characteristics associated with shoot hydraulic conductance, stomatal conductance and stomatal sensitivity to changes of leaf water status in temperate deciduous trees. Funct Plant Biol 28:765–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abrams MD (1988) Sources of variation in osmotic potentials with special reference to North American tree species. Forest Sci 34:1030–1046Google Scholar
  3. Abrams MD (1994) Genotypic and phenotypic variation as stress adaptations in temperate tree species: a review of several case studies. Tree Physiol 14:833–842PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Adams HD, Guardiola-Claramonte M, Barron-Gafford GA et al (2009) Temperature sensitivity of drought-induced tree mortality: implications for regional die-off under global-change-type drought. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:7066–7070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aitken SN, Yeaman S, Holliday JA, Wang T, Curtis-McLane S (2008) Adaptation, migration or extirpation: climate change outcomes for tree populations. Evol Appl 1:95–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Allen CD, Macalady AK, Chenchouni H, Bachelet D, McDowell N, Vennetier M, Kitzberger T, Rigling A, Breshears DD, Hogg EH (Ted), Gonzalez P, Fensham R, Zhangm Z, Castro J, Demidova N, Lim J-H, Allard G, Running SV, Semerci A, Cobb N (2010) A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests. For Ecol Manag 259:660–684Google Scholar
  7. Almeida-Rodriguez AM, Cooke JE, Yeh F, Zwiazek JJ (2010) Functional characterization of drought-responsive aquaporins in Populus balsamifera and Populus simonii × balsamifera clones with different drought resistance strategies. Physiol Plantarum 140:321–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anekonda TS, Lomas MC, Adams WT, Kavanagh KL, Aitken SN (2002) Genetic variation in drought hardiness of coastal Douglas-fir seedlings from British Columbia. Can J For Res 32:1701–1716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Aranda I, Gil L, Pardos JA (2000) Water relations and gas exchange in (Fagus sylvatica L. and Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. in a mixed stand at the southern limit of distribution in Europe. Trees Struct Funct 14:344–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Aranda I, Gil L, Pardos JA (2001) Effects of thinning in a Pinus sylvestris L. stand on foliar water relations of Fagus sylvatica L. seedlings planted within the pinewood. Trees Struct Funct 15:358–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Aranda I, Gil L, Pardos JA (2002) Physiological responses of Fagus sylvatica L. seedlings under Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd. overstories. Forest Ecol Manag 162:153–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Aranda I, Gil L, Pardos JA (2004) Osmotic adjustment in two temperate oak species [Quercus pyrenaica Willd and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl] of the Iberian Peninsula in response to drought. Forest Syst (formerly Investigación Agraria: Sistemas y Recursos Forestales) 13:339–345Google Scholar
  13. Aranda I, Castro L, Pardos M, Gil L, Pardos J (2005) Effects of the interaction between drought and shade on water relations, gas exchange and morphological traits in cork oak (Quercus suber L.) seedlings. Forest Ecol Manag 210:117–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Aranda I, Alía R, Ortega U, Dantas A, Majada J (2010) Intra-population variability in biomass partitioning and carbon isotopic discrimination under moderate drought stress in four maritime pine (Pinus pinaster L.) populations. Tree Genet Genomes 6:169–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Arend M, Kuster T, Günthardt-Goerg MS, Dobbertin M (2011) Provenance-specific growth responses to drought and air warming in three European oak species (Quercus robur, Q. petraea and Q. pubescens). Tree Physiol 31:287–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ares A, Fownes JH, Sun W (2000) Genetic differentiation of intrinsic water-use efficiency in the hawaiian native Acacia koa. Inte J Plant Sci 161:909–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Aspelmeier S, Leuschner C (2006) Genotypic variation in drought response of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth): leaf and root morphology and carbon partitioning. Trees Struct Funct 20:42–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Baaziz BK, Lopez D, Rabot A, Combes D, Gousset A, Bouzid S, Cochard H, Sakr S, Venisse J-S (2012) Light-mediated Kleaf induction and contribution of both the PIP1s and PIP2s aquaporins in five tree species: walnut (Juglans regia) case study. Tree Physiol 32:423–434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bae EK, Lee H, Lee JS, Noh EW (2009) Differential expression of a poplar SK2-type dehydrin gene in response to various stresses. BMB Rep 42:439–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bae EK, Lee H, Lee JS, Noh EW (2010) Isolation and characterization of osmotic stress-induced genes in poplar cells by suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA microarray analysis. Plant Physiol Bioch 48:136–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bae EK, Lee H, Lee JS, Noh EW (2011) Drought, salt and wounding stress induce the expression of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein 1 gene in poplar (Populus alba × P. tremula var. glandulosa). Gene 483:43–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Baquedano FJ, Valladares F, Castillo FJ (2008) Phenotypic plasticity blurs ecotypic divergence in the response of Quercus coccifera and Pinus halepensis to water stress. Eur J For 127:495–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Barnard HR, Ryan MG (2003) A test of the hydraulic limitation hypothesis in fast-growing Eucalyptus saligna. Plant, Cell Environ 26:1235–1245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bassman JH, Zwier JC (1991) Gas exchange characteristics of Populus trichocarpa, Populus deltoides and Populus trichocarpa × P. deltoides clones. Tree Physiol 8:145–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Battaglia M, Olvera-Carrillo Y, Garciarrubio A, Campos F, Covarrubias AA (2008) The enigmatic LEA proteins and other hydrophilins. Plant Physiol 148:6–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Becker P, Meinzer FC, Wullschleger SD (2000) Hydraulic limitation of tree height: a critique. Funct Ecol 14:4–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Benito M, Alía R, Robson TM, Zavala MA (2011) Intra-specific variability and plasticity influence potential tree species distributions under climate change. Global Ecol Biogeogr 20:766–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Benowicz A, Guy RD, El-Kassaby YA (2000) Geographic pattern of genetic variation in photosynthetic capacity and growth in two hardwood species from British Columbia. Oecologia 123:168–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Berta M, Giovannelli A, Sebastiani F, Camussi A, Racchi ML (2010) Transcriptome changes in the cambial region of poplar Populus alba L. in response to water deficit. Plant Biol 12:341–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bhaskar R, Valiente-Banuet A, Ackerly DD (2007) Evolution of hydraulic traits in closely related species pairs from mediterranean and non-mediterranean environments of North America. New Phytol 176:718–726PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bigras FJ (2005) Photosynthetic response of white spruce families to drought stress. New For 29:135–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Blödner C, Majcherczyk A, Kües U, Polle A (2007) Early drought-induced changes to the needle proteome of Norway spruce. Tree Physiol 10:1423–1431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bloom AJ, Chapin FS III, Mooney HA (1985) Resource limitation in plants—an economic analogy. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 16:363–392Google Scholar
  34. Borghetti M, Edwards WRN, Grace J, Jarvis PG, Raschi A (1991) The refilling of embolized xylem in Pinus sylvestris L. Plant, Cell Environ 14:357–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Bossdorf O, Richards CL, Pigliucci M (2008) Epigenetics for ecologists. Ecol Lett 11:106–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Bradshshaw AD (1965) Evolutionary significance of phenotypic plasticity. Adv Genet 13:115–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Breda N, Huc R, Granier A, Dreyer E (2006) Temperate forest trees and stands under severe drought:a review of ecophysiological responses, adaptation processes and long-term consequences. Ann For Sci 63:625–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Brendel O, Pot D, Plomion C, Rozenberg P, Guehl JM (2002) Genetic parameters and QTL analysis of δ13C and ring width in maritime pine. Plant Cell Environ 25:945–953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Brendel O, Le Thiec D, Scotti-Saintagne C, Bodenes C, Kremer A, Guehl JM (2008) Quantitative trait loci controlling water use efficiency and related traits in Quercus robur L. TGG 4:263–278Google Scholar
  40. Breshears DD, Cobb NS, Rich PM, Price KP, Allen CD, Balice RG, Romme WH, Kastens JH, Floyd ML, Belnap J, Anderson JJ, Myers OB, Meyer CW (2005) Regional vegetation die-off in response to global-change-type drought. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:15144–15148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Breshears DD, Myers OB, Meyer CW, Barnes FJ, Zou CB, Allen CD, McDowell NG, Pockman WT (2009) Tree die-off in response to global-change-type drought: mortality insights from a decade of plant water potential measurements. Front Ecol Environ 7:185–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Brodribb TJ, Cochard H (2009) Hydraulic failure defines the recovery and point of death in water-stressed conifers. Plant Physiol 149:575–584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Brodribb TJ, Holbrook NM (2003) Stomatal closure during leaf dehydration, correlation with other leaf physiological traits. Plant Physiol 132:2166–2173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Brodribb TF, Holbrook NM (2006) Declining hydraulic efficiency as transpiring leaves desiccate: two types of response. Plant Cell Environ 29:2205–2215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Brodribb TJ, Holbrook NM, Zwieniecki MA, Palma B (2005) Leaf hydraulic capacity in ferns, conifers and angiosperms: impacts on photosynthetic maxima. New Phytol 165:839–846PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Brodribb TJ, Bowman DJMS, Nichols S, Delzon S, Burlett R (2010) Xylem function and growth rate interact to determine recovery rates after exposure to extreme water deficit. New Phytol 188:533–542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Brosché M, Vinocur B, Alatalo ER, LamminmäkiA, Teichmann T, Ottow EA, Djialianov D, Afif D, Bogeat-Triboulot MB, Altman A, Polle A, Dreyer e, Rudd S, Paulin L, Auvinen P, Kangasjärvi J (2005) Gene expression and metabolite profiling of Populus euphratica growing in the Negev desert. Genome Biol 6:R101Google Scholar
  48. Bucci SJ, Scholz FG, Goldstein G, Meinzer FC, Sternberg LDL (2003) Dynamic changes in hydraulic conductivity in petioles of two savanna tree species: factors and mechanisms contributing to the refilling of embolized vessels. Plant Cell Environ 26:1633–1645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Burczyk J, Giertych M (1991) Response of Norway Spruce (Picea abies [L] Karst) annual increments to drought for various provenances and locations. Silvae Genetica 40:146–152Google Scholar
  50. Camarero JJ, Bigler C, Linares JC, Gil-Pelegrín E (2011) Synergistic effects of past historical logging and drought on the decline of Pyrenean silver fir forests. For Ecol Manag 262:759–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Campanello PI, Gatti MG, Goldstein G (2008) Coordination between water-transport efficiency and photosynthetic capacity in canopy tree species at different growth irradiances. Tree Physiol 28:85–94Google Scholar
  52. Canadell J, Jackson RB, Ehleringer JB, Mooney HA, Sala OE, Schulze ED (1996) Maximum rooting depth of vegetation types at the global scale. Oecologia 108:583–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Caruso A, Chefdor F, Carpin S, Depierreux C, Delmotte FM, Kahlem G, Morabito D (2008) Physiological characterization and identification of genes differentially expressed in response to drought induced by PEG 6000 in Populus Canadensis leaves. J Plant Physiol 165:932–941PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Casasoli M, Derory J, Morera-Dutrey C, Brendel O, Porth I, Guehl J-M, Villani F, Kremer A (2006) Comparison of quantitative trait loci for adaptive traits between oak and chestnut based on an expressed sequence tag consensus map. Genetics 172:533–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Cassasoli M, Pot D, Plomion C, Monteverdi MC, Barreneche T, Laureti M, Villani F (2004) Identification of QTLs affecting adaptive traits in Castanea sativa Mill. Plant Cell Environ 27:1088–1101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ceulemans R, Impens I (1980) Leaf gas exchange processes and related characteristics of seven poplar clones under laboratory conditions. Can J For Res 10:429–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Chambel MR, Climent J, Alia R (2007) Divergence among species and populations of Mediterranean pines in biomass allocation of seedlings grown under two watering regimes. Ann For Sci 64:87–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Chang S, Puryear JD, Dias MADL, Funkhouser EA, Newton RJ, Cairney J (1996) Gene expression under water deficit in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda): isolation and characterization of cDNA clones. Physiol Plantarum 97:139–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Chaves MM, Pereira JS, Maroco J (2003) Understanding plant response to drought—from genes to the whole plant. Funct Plant Biol 30:239–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Chen J, Xia X, Yin W (2009) Expression profiling and functional characterization of a DREB2-type gene from Populus euphratica. Biochem Bioph Res Co 378:483–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Chen J, Xia X, Yin W (2011) A poplar DRE-binding protein gene, PeDREB2L, is involved in regulation of defense response against abiotic stress. Gene 483:36–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Chmura DJ, Anderson PD, Howe GT, Harrington CA, Halofsky JE, Peterson DL, Shaw DC, St.Clair JB (2011) Forest responses to climate change in the northwestern United States: ecophysiological foundations for adaptive management. For Ecol Manag 261:1121–1142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ciais P, Reichstein M, Viovy N, Granier A, Ogee J, Allard V, Aubinet M, Buchmann N, Bernhofer C, Carrara A, Chevallier F, De Noblet N, Friend AD, Friedlingstein P, Grunwald T, Heinesch B, Keronen P, Knohl A, Krinner G, Loustau D, Manca G, Matteucci G, Miglietta F, Ourcival JM, Papale D, Pilegaard K, Rambal S, Seufert G, Soussana JF, Sanz MJ, Schulze ED, Vesala T, Valentini R (2005) Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003. Nature 437:529–533PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Clearwater M, Goldstein G (2005) Embolism repair and long distance water transport. In: Holbrook NM, Zwieniecki MA (eds) Vascular transport in plants. Elsevier Academic Press, USAGoogle Scholar
  65. Cochard H, Tyree MT (1990) Xylem dysfunction in Quercus: vessel sizes, tyloses, cavitation and seasonal changes in embolism. Tree Physiol 6:393–407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Cochard H, Breda N, Granier A, Aussenac G (1992) Vulnerability to air embolism of three European oak species (Quercus petraea (Matt) Liebl., Q. pubescens Willd., Q. robur L.). Ann For Sci 49:225–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Cochard H, Venisse JS, Barigah TS, Brunel N, Herbette S, Guilliot A, Tyree MT, Sakr S (2007) Putative role of aquaporins in variable hydraulic conductance of leaves in response to light. Plant Physiol 143:122–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Cohen D, Bogeat-Triboulot MB, Tisserant E, Balzergue S, Martin-Magniette ML, Lelandais G, Ningre N, Renou JP, Tamby JP, Le Thiec D, Hummel I (2010) Comparative transcriptomics of drought responses in Populus: a meta-analysis of genome-wide expression profiling in mature leaves and root apices across two genotypes. BMC Genomics 11:630PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Corcuera L, Camarero JJ, Gil-Pelegrin E (2002) Functional groups in Quercus species derived from the analysis of pressure–volume curves. Trees Struct Funct 16:465–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Corcuera L, Camarero JJ, Gil-Pelegrín E (2004a) Effects of a severe drought on Quercus ilex radial growth and xylem anatomy. Trees Struct Funct 18:83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Corcuera L, Camarero JJ, Gil-Pelegrín E (2004b) Effects of a severe drought on growth and wood anatomical properties of Quercus faginea. IAWA J 25:185–204Google Scholar
  72. Corcuera L, Morales F, Gil-Pelegrín E (2005) Seasonal changes in photosynthesis and photoprotection in a Quercus ilex subsp ballota woodland located in its upper altitudinal extreme in the Iberian Peninsula. Tree Physiol 25:599–608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Corcuera L, Camarero JJ, Sisó S, Gil-Pelegrin E (2006) Radial-growth and wood-anatomical changes in overaged Quercus pyrenaica coppice stands: functional responses in a new Mediterranean landscape. Trees Struct Funct 0:91–98Google Scholar
  74. Corcuera L, Cochard H, Gil-Pelegrin E, Notivol E (2011) Phenotypic plasticity in mesic populations of Pinus pinaster improves resistance to xylem embolism (P50) under severe drought. Trees Struct Funct 25:1033–1042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Cregg BM, Zhang JW (2001) Physiology and morphology of Pinus sylvestris seedlings from diverse sources under cyclic drought stress. For Ecol Manag 154:131–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. David TS, Henriques MO, Kurz-Besson C, Nunes J, Valente F, Vaz M, Pereira JS, Siegwolf R, Chaves MM, Gazarini LC, David JS (2007) Water use strategies in two co-occurring mediterranean evergreen oaks: surviving the summer drought. Tree Physiol 27:793–803PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Day ME, Greenwood MS, Diaz-Sala C (2002) Age- and size-related trends in woody plant shoot development: regulatory pathways and evidence for genetic control. Tree Physiol 22:507–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. De Miguel M, Sánchez-Gómez D, Cervera MT, Aranda I (2012) Functional and genetic characterization of gas-exchange and water use efficiency in a full-sib family of Pinus pinaster Aitt. in response to drought. Tree Physiol 32:94–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Demmig-Adams B, Adams WW III (1996) Xanthophyll cycle and light stress in nature; uniform response to excess direct sunlight among higher plants. Planta 198:460–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Donovan LA, Ludwig F, Rosenthal DM, Rieseberg LH, Dudley SA (2009) Phenotypic selection on leaf ecophysiological traits in Helianthus. New Phytol 183:868–879PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Drost DR, Benedict CI, Berg A, Novaes E, Novaes CR, Yu Q, Dervinis C, Maia JM, Yap J, Miles B, Kirst M (2010) Diversification in the genetic architecture of gene expression and transcriptional networks in organ differentiation of Populus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:8492–8497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Duan B, Xuan Z, Zhang X, Korpelainen H, Li C (2008) Interactions between drought, ABA application and supplemental UV-B in Populus yunnanensis. Physiol Plantarum 134:257–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Dubos C, Plomion C (2003) Identification of water-deficit responsive genes in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) roots. Plant Mol Biol 51:249–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ducrey M, Huc R, Ladjal M, Guehl JM (2008) Variability in growth, carbon isotope composition, leaf gas exchange and hydraulic traits in the eastern Mediterranean cedars Cedrus libani and C. brevifolia. Tree Physiol 28:689–701PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Dudley SA (1996) Differing selection on plant physiological traits in response to environmental water availability: a test of adaptive hypotheses. Evolution 50:92–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Eggemeyer KD, Awada T, Harvey FE, Wedin DA, Zhou X, Zanner W (2009) Seasonal changes in depth of water uptake for encroaching trees Juniperus virginiana and Pinus ponderosa and two dominant C4 grasses in a semiarid grassland. Tree Physiol 29:157–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Eller ASD, McGuire KL, Sparks JP (2011) Responses of sugar maple and hemlock seedlings to elevated carbon dioxide under altered above- and belowground nitrogen sources. Tree Physiol 31:391–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ellsworth DS, Reich PB (1992) Water relations and gas exchange of Acer saccharum seedlings in contrasting natural light and water regimes. Tree Physiol 10:1–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Esteso-Martinez J, Camarero JJ, Gil-Pelegrin E (2006) Competitive effects of herbs on Quercus faginea seedlings inferred from vulnerability curves and spatial-pattern analyses in a Mediterranean stand (Iberian System, northeast Spain). Ecoscience 13:378–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Eveno E, Collada C, Guevara MA, Léger V, Soto A, Díaz L, Léger P, González-Martínez SC, Cervera MT, Plomion C, Garnier-Géré PH (2008) Contrasting patterns of selection at Pinus pinaster Ait. drought stress candidate genes as revealed by genetic differentiation analyses. Mol Biol Evol 25:417–437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Fillatti JJ, Sellmer J, McCown B, Haissig B, Comai L (1987) Agrobacterium mediated transformation and regeneration of Populus. Mol Gen Genet 206:192–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Flanagan LB, Johnsen KH (1995) Genetic variation in carbon isotope discrimination and its relationship to growth under field conditions in full-sib families of Picea mariana. Can J For Res 25:39–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Foster DR, Oswald WW, Faison EK, Doughty ED, Hansen BCS (2006) A climatic driver for abrupt mid-Holocene vegetation dynamics and the hemlock decline in New England. Ecology 87:2959–2966PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Gailing O, Langenfeld-Heyser R, Polle A, Finkeldey R (2008) Quantitative trait loci affecting stomatal density and growth in a Quercus robur progeny: implications for the adaptation to changing environments. Glob Change Biol 14:1934–1946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Gailing O, Vornam B, Leinemann L, Finkeldey R (2009) Genetic and genomic approaches to assess adaptive genetic variation in plants: forest trees as a model. Physiol Plantarum 137:509–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Gebre GM, Kuhns MR, Brandle JR (1994) Organic solute accumulation and dehydration tolerance in tree water-stressed Populus deltoides clones. Tree Physiol 14:575–587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Gimeno TE, Pías B, Lemos-Filho JP, Valladares F (2009) Plasticity and stress tolerance override local adaptation in the responses of Mediterranean holm oak seedlings to drought and cold. Tree Physiol 29:87–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. González-Martínez SC, Huber D, Ersoz E, Davis JM, Neale DB (2008) Association genetics in Pinus taeda L. II. Carbon isotope discrimination. Heredity 101:19–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Gourcilleau D, Bogeat-Triboulot MB, Le Thiec D, Lafon-Placette C, Delaunay A, El-Soud WA, Brignolas F, Maury S (2010) DNA methylation and histone acetylation: genotypic variations in hybrid poplars, impact of water deficit and relationships with productivity. Ann For Sci 67:208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Grether GF (2005) Environmental change, phenotypic plasticity, and genetic compensation. Am Nat 166:E115–E123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Grivet D, Sebastiani F, Alía R, Bataillon T, Torre S, Zabal-Aguirre M, Vendramin GG, González-Martínez SC (2011) Molecular footprints of local adaptation in two mediterranean conifers. Mol Biol Evol 28:101–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Grossnickle SC, Fan SH, Russell JH (2005) Variation in gas exchange and water use efficiency patterns among populations of western red cedar. Trees Struct Funct 19:32–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Guy RD, Holowachuk DL (2001) Population differences in stable carbon isotope ratio of Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.: relationship to environment, climate of origin, and growth potential. Can J Bot 79:274–283Google Scholar
  104. Hacke UG, Sauter JJ (1996) Xylem dysfunction during winter and recovery of hydraulic conductivity in diffuse-porous and ring-porous trees. Oecologia 105:435–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Hacke UG, Sperry JS (2003) Limits to xylem refilling under negative pressure in Laurus nobilis and Acer negundo. Plant Cell Environ 26:303–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Hacke UG, Sperry JS, Pockman WT, Davis SD, McCulloh KA (2001) Trends in wood density and structure are linked to prevention of xylem embolism by negative pressure. Oecologia 54:275–280Google Scholar
  107. Hacke UG, Sperry JS, Pittermann JA (2005) Efficiency vs. safety trade-offs for water conduction in angiosperm vessels vs. gymnosperm tracheids. In: Holbrook NM, Zwieniecki M (eds) Vascular transport in plants. Elsevier Inc., Amsterdam, pp 333–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Hamanishi ET, Campbell MM (2011) Genome-wide responses to drought in forest trees. Forestry 84:273–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Hamrick JL (2004) Response of forest trees to global environmental changes. For Ecol Manag 197:323–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Heath LS, Ramakrishnan N, Sederoff RR, Whetten RW, Chevone BI, Struble CA, Jouenne VY, Chen DW, van Zyl L, Grene R (2002) Studying the functional genomics of stress responses in loblolly pine with the Expresso microarray experiment management system. Comp Funct Genom 3:226–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Henery ML, Moran GF, Foley WJ (2007) Identification of quantitative trait loci influencing foliar concentrations of terpenes and formylated phloroglucinol compounds in Eucalyptus nitens. New Phytol 176:82–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Herrera CM, Bazaga P (2010) Epigenetic differentiation and relationship to adaptive genetic divergence in discrete populations of the violet Viola cazorlensis. New Phytol 187:867–876PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Hirayama T, Shinozaki K (2010) Research on plant abiotic stress responses in the post-genome era: past, present and future. Plant J 61:1041–1052PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Ingvarsson PK, Street NR (2011) Association genetics of complex traits in plants. New Phytol 189:909–922PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Ingvarsson PK, Garcia MV, Luquez V, Hall D, Jansson S (2008) Nucleotide polymorphism and phenotypic associations within and around the phytochrome B2 locus in European Aspen (Populus tremula, Salicaceae). Genetics 178:2217–2226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. IPCC 2007. Climate change 2007:impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 976Google Scholar
  117. Jansen S, Gortan E, Lens F, Lo Gullo MA, Salleo S, Schloz A, Stein A, Trifilò P, Nardini A (2011) Do quantitative vessel and pit characters account for ion-mediated changes in the hydraulic conductance of angiosperm xylem? New Phytol 189:218–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Jensen JS (1993) Variation of growth in Danish provenance trials with oak (Quercus robur L and Quercus petraea Mattuschka Liebl). Ann Sci For 50:203–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Johnson DM, Woodruff DR, McCulloh KA, Meinzer F (2009) Leaf hydraulic conductance, measured in situ, declines and recovers daily:leaf hydraulics, water potential and stomatal conductance in four temperate and three tropical tree species. Tree Physiol 29:879–887PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Jones HG, Sutherland RA (1991) Stomatal control of xylem embolism. Plant Cell Environ 49:607–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Jump AS, Hunt JM, Peñuelas J (2006) Rapid climate change-related growth decline at the southern range edge of Fagus sylvatica. Global Change Biol 12:2163–2174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. King DA (1990) The adaptive significance of tree height. Am Nat 135:809–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. König A (2005) Provenance research: evaluation the spatial pattern of genetic variation. In: Geburek T, Turok J (eds) Conservation and management of forest genetic resources in Europe. Arbora Publishers, Zvolen and IPGRI, Rome, pp 275–334Google Scholar
  124. Kremer K (1995) Phenotypic plasticity of the phenology of seven European tree species in relation to climatic warming. Plant Cell Environ 18:93–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Kremer A (2010) Evolutionary responses of European oaks to climate change. Irish For 67:53–66Google Scholar
  126. Kremer A, Le Corre V, Petit RJ, Ducousso A (2010) Historical and contemporary dynamics of adaptive differentiation in European oaks. In: DeWoody A, Bickham J, Michler C, Nichols K, Rhodes G, Woeste K (eds) Molecular Approaches in natural resource conservation and management. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 101–122Google Scholar
  127. Lamy J-B, Bouffier L, Burlett R, Plomion C, Cochard H, Delzon S (2011) Uniform selection as a primary force reducing population genetic differentiation of cavitation resistance across a species range. PLoS ONE 6(8):e23476PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Langlet O (1971) Two hundred years of genecology. Taxon 20:653–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Lauteri M, Scartazza A, Guido MC, Brugnoli E (1997) Genetic variation in photosynthetic capacity, carbon isotope discrimination and mesophyll conductance in provenances of Castanea sativa adapted to different environments. Funct Ecol 11:675–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Lenz TI, Wright IJ, Westoby M (2006) Interrelations among pressure–volume curve traits across species and water availability gradients. Physiol Plantarum 127:423–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Leonardi S, Piovani P, Magnani F, Menozzi P (2006) A simple general method to evaluate intra-specific transpiration parameters within and among seedling families. Oecologia 149:185–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Li XP, Björkman O, Shih C, Grossman AR, Rosenquist M, Jansson S, Niyogi KK (2000a) A pigment-binding protein essential for regulation of photosynthetic light harvesting. Nature 403:391–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Li C, Berninger F, Koskela J, Sonninen E (2000b) Drought responses of Eucalyptus microtheca provenances depend on seasonality of rainfall in their place of origin. Aust J Plant Physiol 27:231–238Google Scholar
  134. Linares JC, Camarero JJ, Carreira JA (2009) Interacting effects of climate and forest-cover changes on mortality and growth of the southernmost European fir forests. Global Ecol Biogeogr 18:485–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Linares JC, Camarero JJ, Carreira JA (2010) Competition modulates the adaptation capacity of forests to climatic stress: insights from recent growth decline and death in relict stands of the Mediterranean fir Abies pinsapo. J Ecol 98:592–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Lindner M, Maroschek M, Netherer S, Kremer A, Barbati A, Garcia-Gonzalo J, Seidl R, Delzon S, Corona P, Kolstrom M, Lexer MJ, Marchetti M (2010) Climate change impacts, adaptive capacity, and vulnerability of European forest ecosystems. Forest Ecol Manag 259:698–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Linhart YB, Grant MC (1996) Evolutionary significance of local genetic differentiation in plants. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 267:237–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Lira-Medeiros CF, Parisod C, Fernandes RA, Mata CS, Cardoso MA, Ferreira PCG (2010) Epigenetic variation in mangrove plants occurring in contrasting natural environment. PLoS ONE 5:e10326. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010326 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Lo Gullo MA, Salleo S (1993) Different vulnerabilities of Quercus ilex L. to freeze- and summer drought-induced xylem embolism: an ecological interpretation. Plant Cell Environ 16:511–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Lo Gullo MA, Nardini A, Salleo S, Tyree MT (1998) Changes in root hydraulic conductance (KR) of Olea oleaster seedlings following drought stress and irrigation. New Phytol 140:25–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Long Y, Xia W, Li R, Wang J, Shao M, Feng J, King GJ, Meng J (2011) Epigenetic QTL mapping in Brassica napus. Genetics 189:1093–1102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Lorenz WW, Sun F, Liang C, Kolychev D, Wang HM, Zhao X, Cordonnier-Pratt MM, Pratt LH, Dean JFD (2006) Water stress-responsive genes in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) roots identified by analyses of expressed sequence tag libraries. Tree Physiol 26:1–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Maherali H, Pockman WT, Jackson RB (2004) Adaptive variation in the vulnerability of woody plants to xylem cavitation. Ecology 85:2184–2199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Major JE, Johnsenn KH (1996) Family variation in photosynthesis of 22-year-old black spruce: a test of two models of physiological response to water stress. Can J For Res 26:1922–1933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Major JE, Johnsenn KH (1999) Shoot water relations of mature black spruce families displaying a genotype x environment interaction in growth rate. II. Temporal trends and response to varying soil water conditions. Tree Physiol 19:375–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Manter DK, Kelsey RG (2008) Ethanol accumulation in drought-stressed conifer seedlings. Int J Plant Sci 169:361–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Martínez-Vilalta J, Piñol J (2002) Drought-induced mortality and hydraulic architecture in pine populations of the NE Iberian Peninsula. For Ecol Manag 161:247–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Martínez-Vilalta J, Prat E, Oliveras I, Piñol J (2002) Xylem hydraulic properties of roots and stems of nine Mediterranean woody species. Oecologia 133:19–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Mayr S, Rothart B, Daèmon B (2003) Hydraulic efficiency and safety of leader shoots and twigs in Norway spruce growing at the alpine timberline. J Exp Bot 54:2563–2568Google Scholar
  150. McCown BH, McCabe DE, Russell DR, Robinson DJ, Barton KA, Raffa KF (1991) Stable transformation of Populus and incorporation of pest resistance by electric discharge particle acceleration. Plant Cell Rep 9:590–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. McDowell NG (2011) Mechanisms linking drought, hydraulics, carbon metabolism, and vegetation mortality. Plant Physiol 155:1051–1059PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. McDowell N, Pockman WT, Allen CD, Breshears DD, Cobb N, Kolb T, Sperry J, West A, Williams D, Yepez EA (2008) Mechanisms of plant survival and mortality during drought: why do some plants survive while others succumb to drought? Transley review. New Phytol 178:719–739PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Meier IC, Leuschner C (2008a) Belowground drought response of European beech: fine root biomass and carbon partitioning in 14 mature stands across a precipitation gradient. Global Change Biol 14:2081–2095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Meier IC, Leuschner Ch (2008b) Genotypic variation and phenotypic plasticity in the drought response of fine roots of European beech. Tree Physiol 28:297–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Melcher PJ, Goldstein G, Meinzer FC, Yount DE, Jones TJ, Holbrook NM, Huang CX (2001) Water relations of coastal and estuarine Rhizophora mangle: xylem pressure potential and dynamics of embolism formation and repair. Oecologia 126:182–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Merchant A, Tausz M, Arndt SK, Adams MA (2006) Cyclitols and carbohydrates in leaves and roots of 13 Eucalyptus species suggest contrasting physiological responses to water deficit. Plant Cell Environ 29:2017–2029PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Merchant A, Callister A, Arndt S, Tausz M, Adams M (2007a) Contrasting physiological responses of six Eucalyptus species to water deficit. Ann Bot 100:1507–1515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Merchant A, Ladiges PY, Adams MA (2007b) Quercitol links the physiology, taxonomy and evolution of 279 eucalypt species. Global Ecol Biogeogr 16:810–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Mirouze M, Paszkowski J (2011) Epigenetic contribution to stress adaptation in plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol 14:267–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Mittler R (2006) Abiotic stress, the field environment and stress combination. Trends Plant Sci 11:15–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Monclus R, Dreyer E, Villar M, Delmotte FM, Delay D, Petit J-M, Barbaroux C, Le Thiec D, Bréchet C, Brignolas F (2006) Impact of drought on productivity and water-use efficiency in 29 genotypes of Populus deltoides × Populus nigra. New Phytol 169:765–777PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Monk C (1966) Ecological importance of root/shoot ratios. B Torrey Bot Club 93:402–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Morales F, Abadía A, Abadía J (2006) Photoinhibition and photoprotection under nutrient deficiencies, drought and salinity. In: Demmig-Adams B, Adams III WW, Mattoo AK (eds) Photoprotection, photoinhibition, gene regulation, and environment. Springer, The Netherlands, pp 65–85Google Scholar
  164. Morreel K, Goeminne G, Storme V, Sterck L, Ralph J, Coppieters W, Breyne P, Steenackers M, Georges M, Messens E, Boerjan W (2006) Genetical metabolomics of flavonoid biosynthesis in Populus: a case study. Plant J 47:224–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Morse AM, Peterson DG, Islam-Faridi MN, Smith KE, Magbanua Z, Garcia SA, Kubisiak TL, Amerson HV, Carlson JE, Nelson CD, Davis JM (2009) Evolution of genome size and complexity in Pinus. PLoS ONE 4:e4332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Nardini A, Tyree MT, Salleo S (2001) Xylem cavitation in the leaf of Prunus laurocerasus and its impact on leaf hydraulics. Plant Physiol 125:1700–1709PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Nardini A, Lo Gullo MA, Salleo S (2011) Refilling embolized xylem conduits: is it a matter of phloem unloading? Plant Sci 180:604–611PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Neale DB, Kremer A (2011) Forest tree genomics: growing resources and applications. Nat Rev Genet 12:111–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Newbery DM, Lingenfelder M (2009) Plurality of tree species responses to drought perturbation in Bornean tropical rain forest. Plant Ecol 201:147–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Nicotra AB, Atkin OK, Bonser SP, Davidson A, Finnegan EJ, Mathesius U, Poot P, Purugganan MD, Richards CL, Valladares F, van Kleunen M (2010) Plant phenotypic plasticity in a changing climate. Trends Plant Sci 15:684–692PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Niinemets Ü (2010) Responses of forest trees to single and multiple environmental stresses from seedlings to mature plants: past stress history, stress interactions, tolerance and acclimation. For Ecol Manag 260:1623–1639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Nobel PS, Lee CH (1991) Variations in root water potentials: influence of environmental factors for two succulent species. Ann Bot 67:549–554Google Scholar
  173. Ogaya R, Peñuelas J (2007) Tree growth, mortality, and above-ground biomass accumulation in a holm oak forest under a five-year experimental field drought. Plant Ecol 189:291–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Oliver MJ, Cushman JC, Koster KL (2010) Dehydration tolerance in plants. In: Sunkar R (ed) Plant stress tolerance, vol 639. Humana Press, New York, pp 3–24Google Scholar
  175. Olsen AN, Ernst HA, Leggio LL, Skriver K (2005) NAC transcription factors: structurally distinct, functionally diverse. Trends Plant Sci 10:79–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Passarinho JAP, Lamosa P, Baeta JP, Santos H, Ricardo CPP (2006) Annual changes in the concentration of minerals and organic compounds of Quercus suber leaves. Physiol Plant 127:100–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Peguero-Pina JJ, Camarero JJ, Abadía A, Martín E, González-Cascón R, Morales F, Gil-Pelegrín E (2007) Physiological performance of silver-fir (Abies alba Mill.) populations under contrasting climates near the south-western distribution limit of the species. Flora 202:226–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Peguero-Pina JJ, Sancho-Knapik D, Morales F, Flexas J, Gil-Pelegrín E (2009) Differential photosynthetic performance and photoprotection mechanisms of three Mediterranean evergreen oaks under severe drought stress. Funct Plant Biol 36:453–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Peguero-Pina JJ, Sancho-Knapik D, Cochard H, Barredo G, Villarroya D, Gil-Pelegrín (2011) Hydraulic traits are associated with the distribution range of two closely related Mediterranean firs, Abies alba Mill. and Abies pinsapo Boiss. Tree Physiol 31:1067–1075Google Scholar
  180. Pelgas B, Bousquet J, Meirmans PG, Ritland K, Isabel N (2011) QTL mapping in white spruce: gene maps and genomic regions underlying adaptive traits across pedigrees, years and environments. BMC Genomics 12:145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Pemán J, Voltas J, Gil-Pelegrín E (2006) Morphological and functional variability in the root system of Quercus ilex L. subject to confinement: consequences for afforestation. Ann For Sci 63:425–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Peñuelas J, Lloret F, Montoya R (2001) Severe drought effects on mediterranean woody flora in Spain. Forest Sci 47:214–218Google Scholar
  183. Peñuelas J, Ogaya R, Hunt JM, Jump AS (2008) 20th century changes of tree-ring d13C at the southern range-edge of Fagus sylvatica. Increasing water-use efficiency does not avoid the growth decline induced by warming at low altitudes. Glob Change Biol 14:1076–1088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Perdiguero P, Collada C, Barbero MC, García-Casado G, Cervera MT, Soto A (2012) Identification of water stress genes in Pinus pinaster Ait. by controlled progressive stress and suppression-subtractive hybridization. Plant Physiol Biochem 50:44–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Peuke AD, Hartung W, Schraml C, Rennenberg H (2002) Identification of drought sensitive beech ecotypes by physiological parameters. New Phytol 154:373–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Piper FI (2011) Drought induces opposite changes in the concentration of non-structural carbohydrates of two evergreen Nothofagus species of differential drought resistance. Ann For Sci 68:415–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Pittermann J, Sperry JS, Hacke U, Wheeler JK, Sikkema EH (2006) Inter-tracheid pitting and the hydraulic efficiency of conifer wood: the role of tracheid allometry and cavitation protection. Am J Bot 93:1265–1273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Plomion C, Chagné D, Pot D, Kumar S, Wilcox PL, Burdon RD, Prat D, Peterson DG, Paiva J, Chaumeil P, Vendramin GG, Sebastiani F, Nelson CD, Echt CS, Savolainen O, Kubisiak TL, Cervera MT, de María N, Islam-Faridi MN (2007) Pines. In: Kole C (ed) Forest trees. Genome mapping and molecular breeding in plants, vol 7. Springer, Berlin. Paper 44Google Scholar
  189. Poorter H, Niklas KJ, Reich PB, Oleksyn J, Poot P, Mommer L (2012) Biomass allocation to leaves, stems and roots: meta-analyses of interspecific variation and environmental control. New Phytol 193:30–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Possen BJHM, Oksanen E, Rousi M, Ruhanen H, Ahonen V, Tervahauta A, Heinonen J, Heiskanen J, Kärenlampi S, Vapaavuori E (2011) Adaptability of birch (Betula pendula Roth) and aspen (Populus tremula L.) genotypes to different soil moisture conditions. For Ecol Manag 262:1387–1399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Prasolova NV, Xu ZH, Farquhar GD, Saffigna PG, Dieters MJ (2001) Canopy carbon and oxygen isotope composition of 9-year-old hoop pine families in relation to seedling carbon isotope composition, growth, field growth performance, and canopy nitrogen concentration. Can J For Res 31:673–681Google Scholar
  192. Raj S, Bräutigama K, Hamanishi ET, Wilkins O, Thomas BR, Schroederf W, Mansfield SD, Planth AL, Campbell MM (2011) Clone history shapes Populus drought responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:12521–12526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Ramírez-Valiente JA, Lorenzo Z, Soto A, Valladares F, Gil L, Aranda I (2009) Elucidating the role of genetic drift and natural selection in cork oak differentiation regarding drought tolerance. Mol Ecol 18:3803–3815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Ramírez-Valiente JA, Valladares F, Delgado A, Granados A, Aranda I (2011) Factors affecting cork oak growth under dry conditions: local adaptation and contrasting additive genetic variance within populations. Tree Gen Genom 7:285–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Resco V, Ewers BE, Sun W, Huxman TE, Weltzin JF, Williams DG (2009) Drought-induced hydraulic limitations constrain leaf gas exchange recovery after precipitation pulses in the C3 woody legume, Prosopis velutina. New Phytol 181:672–682PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Robson TM, Rodríguez-Calcerrada J, Sánchez-Gómez D, Aranda I (2009) Summer drought impedes beech seedlings performance more in a sub-Mediterranean forest understory than in small gaps. Tree Physiol 29:249–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Robson TM, Sánchez-Gomez D, Cano FJ, Aranda I (2012) Differences in functional leaf traits among beech provenances during a Spanish summer reflect the differences in their origin. Tree Gen Genom. doi:  10.1007/s11295-012-0496-5
  198. Rodríguez-Calcerrada J, Cano FJ, Valbuena-Carabaña M, Gil L, Aranda I (2010) Functional performance of oak seedlings naturally regenerated across different understory microhabitats in a sub-Mediterranean forest: influence of light and water availability. New Forest 39:245–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Rönnberg-Wästljung AC, Glynn C, Weih M (2005) QTL analyses of drought tolerance and growth for a Salix dasyclados × Salix viminalis hybrid in contrasting water regimes. Theor Appl Genet 110:537–549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Ryan MG, Yoder BJ (1997) Hydraulic limits to tree height and tree growth. Bioscience 47:235–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Ryan MG, Phillips N, Bond BJ (2006) The hydraulic limitation hypothesis revisited. Plant Cell Environ 29:367–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Sack L, Holbrook NM (2006) Leaf hydraulics. Annu Rev Plant Biol 57:361–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Sack L, Cowan PD, Jaikumar NJ, Holbrook NM (2003) The ‘hydrology’ of leaves: coordination of structure and function in temperate woody species. Plant Cell Environ 26:1343–1356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Sala A, Piper F, Hoch G (2010) Physiological mechanisms of drought-induced tree mortality are far from being resolved. New Phytol 186:274–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Salleo S, Raimondo F, Trifilo P, Nardini A (2003) Axial-to-radial water permeability of leaf major veins: a possible determinant of the impact of vein embolism on leaf hydraulics? Plant Cell Environ 26:1749–1758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Sánchez-Gómez D, Velasco-Conde T, Cano FJ, Guevara MA, Cervera MT, Aranda I (2011) Stone pine, a genetically homogeneous species that displays inter-clonal variation in functional traits related to differential growth under drought. Environ Exp Bot 70:104–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Sangsing K, Kasemsap P, Thanisawanyangkura S, Sangkhasila K, Gohet E, Thaler P, Cochard H (2004) Xylem embolism and stomatal regulation in two rubber clones (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.). Trees 18:109–114Google Scholar
  208. Sardans J, Peñuelas J, Rivas-Ubach A (2011) Ecological metabolomics: overview of current developments and future challenges. Chemoecology 21:191–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Sathyan P, Newton RJ, Loopstra CA (2005) Genes induced by WDS are differentially expressed in two populations of aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis). Tree Genet Genom 1:166–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Savolainen O, Pyhajarvi T, Knurr T (2007) Gene flow and local adaptation in trees. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 38:595–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Scotti I, Calvo-Vialettes L, Scotti-Saintagne C, Citterio M, Degen B, Bonal D (2010) Genetic variation for growth, morphological, and physiological traits in a wild population of the Neotropical shade tolerant rainforest tree Sextonia rubra (Mez) van der Werff (Lauraceae). Tree Genet Genomes 6:319–329Google Scholar
  212. Seager R, Ting M, Held I, Kushnir Y, Lu J, Vecchi G, Huang H-P, Harnik N, Leetmaa A, Lau N-C, Li C, Velez J, Naik N (2007) Model projections of an imminent transition to a more arid climate in southwestern North America. Science 316:1181–1184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Secchi F, Lovisolo C, Uehlein N, Kaldenho R, Schubert A (2007) Isolation and functional characterization of three aquaporins from olive (Olea europaea L.). Planta 225:381–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Shatil-Cohen A, Attia Z, Moshelion M (2011) Bundle-sheath cell regulation of xylem-mesophyll water transport via aquaporins under drought stress: a target of xylem-borne ABA? Plant J 67:72–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Shinozaki K, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K (2007) Gene networks involved in drought stress response and tolerance. J Exp Bot 58:221–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Sperry J, Ikeda T (1997) Xylem cavitation in roots and stems of Douglas fir and white fir. Tree Physiol 17:275–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Sperry JS, Saliendra NZ (1994) Intra- and inter-plant variation in xylem cavitation in Betula occidentalis. Plant Cell Environ 17:1233–1241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Sperry JS, NM Holbrook NM, Zimmermann MH, Tyree MT (1987) Spring filling of xylem vessels in wild grapevine. Plant Physiol 83:414–417Google Scholar
  219. Sperry JS, Stiller V, Hacke UG (2003) Xylem hydraulics and the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum: opportunities and unresolved issues. Agron J 95:1362–1370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Sperry JS, Meinzer FC, McCulloh KA (2008) Safety and efficiency conflicts in hydraulic architecture: scaling from tissues to trees. Plant Cell Environ 31:632–645PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Street NR, Skogstrom O, Sjodin A, Tucker J, Rodriguez-Acosta M, Nilsson P, Jansson S, Taylor G (2006) The genetics and genomics of the drought response in Populus. Plant J 48:321–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Teixeira J, Missiaggia A, Dias D, Scarpinati E, Viana J, Paula N, Paula R, Bonine C (2011) QTL analyses of drought tolerance in Eucalyptus under two contrasting water regimes. BMC Proc 5:40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Thumma BR, Nolan MR, Evans R, Moran GF (2005) Polymorphisms in Cinnamoyl CoA Reductase (CCR) are associated with variation in microfibril angle in Eucalyptus spp. Genetics 171:1257–1265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Topa MA (2004) Tree physiology: root system physiology. In: Burley J, Evans J, Youngquist J (eds) The encyclopedia of forest sciences. Elsevier Science Ltd., London, pp 1606–1616Google Scholar
  225. Tschaplinski TJ, Tuskan GA, Sewell MM, Gebre GM, Todd DE, Pendley CD (2006) Phenotypic variation and quantitative trait locus identification for osmotic potential in an interspecific hybrid inbred F2 poplar pedigree grown in contrasting environments. Tree Physiol 26:595–604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Tsuda M, Tyree MT (1997) Whole-plant hydraulic resistance and vulnerability segmentation in Acer saccharinum. Tree Physiol 17:351–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Tuskan GA, DiFazio S, Jansson S, Bohlmann J et al (2006) The genome of black cottonwood, Populus trichocarpa (Torr. & Gray). Science 313:1596–1604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Tyree MT, Ewers FW (1991) The hydraulic architecture of trees and other woody plants. New Phytol 119:345–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Tyree MT, Sperry JS (1989) Vulnerability of xylem to cavitation and embolism. Ann Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 40:19–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Tyree MT, Zimmermann MH (2002) Xylem structure and the ascent of sap, 2nd edn. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  231. Tyree MT, Snyderman DA, Wilmot TR, Machado JL (1991) Water relations and hydraulic architecture of a tropical tree (Schefflera morototoni): data, models, and a comparison with two temperate species (Acer saccharum and Thuja occidentalis). Plant Physiol 96:1105–1113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Tyree MT, Cochard H, Cruiziat P, Sinclair B, Ameglio T (1993) Drought-induced leaf shedding in walnut: evidence for vulnerability segmentation. Plant Cell Environ 16:882–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Vaahtera L, Brosché M (2011) More than the sum of its parts. How to achieve a specific transcriptional response to abiotic stress. Plant Sci 180:421–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Valladares F, Pearcy RW (1997) Interactions between water stress, sun-shade acclimation, heat tolerance and photoinhibition in the sclerophyll Heteromeles arbutifolia. Plant Cell Environ 20:25–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Valladares F, Pearcy RW (2002) Drought can be more critical in the shade than in the sun: a field study of carbon gain and photo-inhibition in a Californian shrub during a dry El Niño year. Plant Cell Environ 25:749–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. van Mantgem PJ, Stephenson NL, Byrne JC, Daniels LD, Franklin JF, Fulé PZ, Harmon ME, Larson AJ, Smith JM, Taylor AH, Veblen TT (2009) Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the western United States. Science 323:521–524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Vander Willigen C, Pammenter NW (1998) Relationship between growth and xylem hydraulic characteristics of clones of Eucalyptus spp. at contrasting sites. Tree Physiol 18:595–600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Vilagrosa A, Morales F, Abadía A, Bellot J, Cochard H, Gil-Pelegrin E (2010) Are symplast tolerance to intense drought conditions and xylem vulnerability to cavitation coordinated? An integrated analysis of photosynthetic, hydraulic and leaf level processes in two Mediterranean drought-resistant species. Env Exp Bot 69:233–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Vitasse Y, Bresson CC, Kremer A, Michalet R, Delzon S (2010) Quantifying phenological plasticity to temperature in two temperate tree species. Funct Ecol 24:1211–1218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Voltas J, Chambel MR, Prada MA, Ferrio JP (2008) Climate-related variability in carbon and oxygen stable isotopes among populations of Aleppo pine grown in common-garden tests. Trees Struct Funct 22:759–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Von Humboldt A, Bonpland A (2009) Essay on the geography of plants. In: Jackson ST (ed) Translated by Romanowski S. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, p 274Google Scholar
  242. Vornam B, Gaitling O, Derory J, Plomion C, Kremer A, Finkeldey R (2011) Characterisation and natural variation of a dehydrin gene in Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. Plant Biol 13:881–887PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Wang WX, Vinocur B, Shoseyov O, Altman A (2004) Role of plant heat-shock proteins and molecular chaperones in the abiotic stress response. Trends Plant Sci 9:244–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Wanke D, Kolukisaoglu HU (2010) An update on the ABCC transporter family in plants: many genes, many proteins, but how many functions? Plant Biol 12:15–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Warren CR, Aranda I, Cano FJ (2011) Responses to water stress of gas exchange and metabolites in Eucalyptus and Acacia spp. Plant Cell Environ 34:1609–1629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Warren CR, Aranda I, Cano FJ (2012) Metabolomics demonstrates divergent responses of two Eucalyptus species to water stress. Metabolomics 8:186–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Watkinson JI, Sioson AA, Vasquez-Robinet C, Shukla M, Kumar D, Ellis M, Heath LS, Ramakrishnan N, Chevone B, Watson LT, van Zyl L, Egertsdotter U, Sederoff RR, Grene R (2003) Photosynthetic acclimation is reflected in specific patterns of gene expression in drought-stressed Loblolly pine. Plant Physiol 133:1702–1716PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Yang F, Wang Y, Miao LF (2010) Comparative physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress in two poplar species originating from different altitudes. Physiol Plantarum 139:388–400Google Scholar
  249. Zach A, Schuldt B, Brix S, Hornaa V, Culmsee H, Leuschner C (2010) Vessel diameter and xylem hydraulic conductivity increase with tree height in tropical rainforest trees in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Flora 205:506–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Zhang JW, Marshall JD (1995) Variation in carbon isotope discrimination and photosynthetic gas exchange among populations of Pseudotsuga menziessi and Pinus ponderosa in different environments. Funct Ecol 9:402–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Zhang JW, Marshall JD, Jaquish BC (1993) Genetic differentiation in carbon isotope discrimination and gas exchange in Pseudotsuga menziesii. Oecologia 93:80–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Zhang JW, Fins L, Marshall JD (1994) Stable carbon isotope discrimination, photosynthetic gas exchange, and growth differences among wetern larch families. Tree Physiol 14:531–539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Zufferey V, Cochard H, Ameglio T, Spring JL, Viret O (2011) Diurnal cycles of embolism formation and repair in petioles of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Chasselas). J Exp Bot 62:3885–3894PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Zwieniecki MA, Holbrook NM (2009) Confronting Maxwell’s demon: biophysics of xylem embolism repair. Trends Plant Sci 14:530–534PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Zwieniecki MA, Melcher PJ, Holbrook NM (2001) Hydrogel control of xylem hydraulic resistance. Science 291:1059–1062PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Aranda
    • 1
    Email author
  • E. Gil-Pelegrín
    • 2
  • A. Gascó
    • 1
  • M. A. Guevara
    • 1
    • 3
  • J. F. Cano
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
  • M. De Miguel
    • 1
  • J. A. Ramírez-Valiente
    • 1
  • J. J. Peguero-Pina
    • 5
  • P. Perdiguero
    • 3
    • 4
  • A. Soto
    • 3
    • 4
  • M. T. Cervera
    • 1
    • 3
  • C. Collada
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrarias (INIA), Centro de Investigaciones Forestales (CIFOR)MadridSpain
  2. 2.Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón (CITA de Aragón)ZaragozaSpain
  3. 3.Unidad Mixta de Genómica y Ecofisiología Forestal, INIA/UPMMadridSpain
  4. 4.GENFOR Grupo de investigación en Genética y Fisiología Forestal, Universidad Politécnica de MadridMadridSpain
  5. 5.Department de BiologiaUniversitat de les Illes BalearsPalma de Mallorca Illes BalearsSpain

Personalised recommendations