Advertisement

Multilingual Verbalisation of Modular Ontologies Using GF and lemon

  • Brian Davis
  • Ramona Enache
  • Jeroen van Grondelle
  • Laurette Pretorius
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7427)

Abstract

This paper presents an approach to multilingual ontology verbalisation of controlled language based on the Grammatical Framework (GF) and the lemon model. It addresses specific challenges that arise when classes are used to create a consensus-based conceptual framework, in which many parties individually contribute instances. The approach is presented alongside a concrete case, in which ontologies are used to capture business processes by linguistically untrained stakeholders across business disciplines. GF is used to create multilingual grammars that enable transparent multilingual verbalisation. Capturing the instance labels in lemon lexicons reduces the need for GF engineering to the class level: The lemon lexicons with the labels of the instances are converted into GF grammars based on a mapping described in this paper. The grammars are modularised in accordance with the ontology modularisation and can deal with the different styles of label choosing that occur in practice.

Keywords

Controlled Natural Languages Ontology Verbalisation Multilingualism Ontology Lexicalisation Natural Language Generation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Heller, R., van Teeseling, F.: Knowledge Applications for Life Events: How the Dutch Government Informs the Public about Rights and Duties in the Netherlands. In: Aroyo, L., Traverso, P., Ciravegna, F., Cimiano, P., Heath, T., Hyvönen, E., Mizoguchi, R., Oren, E., Sabou, M., Simperl, E. (eds.) ESWC 2009. LNCS, vol. 5554, pp. 846–850. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    van Grondelle, J.C., Gülpers, M.: Specifying Flexible Business Processes Using Pre and Post Conditions. In: Johannesson, P., Krogstie, J., Opdahl, A.L. (eds.) PoEM 2011. LNBIP, vol. 92, pp. 38–51. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Buitelaar, P., Cimiano, P., Haase, P., Sintek, M.: Towards Linguistically Grounded Ontologies. In: Aroyo, L., et al. (eds.) ESWC 2009. LNCS, vol. 5554, pp. 111–125. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Montiel-Ponsoda, E., de Cea, G., Gómez-Pérez, A., Peters, W.: Modelling multilinguality in ontologies. In: Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING) (2008)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Francopoulo, G., George, M., Calzolari, N., Monachini, M., Bel, N., Pet, M., Soria, C.: Lexical markup framework (LMF). In: Proceedings of the 2006 International Conference on Language Resource and Evaluation (LREC) (2006)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kemps-Snijders, M., Windhouwer, M., Wittenburg, P., Wright, S.E.: ISOcat: Corralling data categories in the wild. In: Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Language Resource and Evaluation (LREC) (2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fuchs, N.E., Kaljurand, K., Kuhn, T.: Attempto Controlled English for Knowledge Representation. In: Baroglio, C., Bonatti, P.A., Małuszyński, J., Marchiori, M., Polleres, A., Schaffert, S. (eds.) Reasoning Web 2008. LNCS, vol. 5224, pp. 104–124. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Power, R., Scott, D., Evans, R.: What you see is what you meant: direct knowledge editings with natural language feedback. In: Prade, H. (ed.) 13th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI 1998), pp. 677–681. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester (1998)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Angelov, K., Enache, R.: Typeful Ontologies with Direct Multilingual Verbalization. In: Rosner, M., Fuchs, N.E. (eds.) CNL 2010. LNCS, vol. 7175, pp. 1–20. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dannélls, D., Enache, R., Damova, M., Chechev, M.: Multilingual online generation from semantic web ontologies. In: WWW 2012, EU projects track, Lyon (April 2012)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ranta, A.: Grammatical Framework: Programming with Multilingual Grammars. CSLI Publications, Stanford (2011) ISBN-10: 1-57586-626-9 (Paper), 1-57586-627-7 (Cloth)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian Davis
    • 1
  • Ramona Enache
    • 2
  • Jeroen van Grondelle
    • 3
  • Laurette Pretorius
    • 4
  1. 1.DERI/NUIGIreland
  2. 2.Chalmers UniversitySweden
  3. 3.Be InformedThe Netherlands
  4. 4.University of South AfricaSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations