The ACL: Anatomy, Biomechanics, Mechanisms of Injury, and the Gender Disparity

Chapter

Abstract

This chapter summarizes the current knowledge regarding ACL anatomy, biomechanics, common injury mechanisms, and the differences in ACL injury rates between male and female athletes. The anatomy of the ACL has been well described; however, disagreement exists regarding its division into two distinct fiber bundles. At least two-thirds of ACL tears occur during noncontact situations such as cutting, pivoting, accelerating, decelerating, and landing from a jump. Reduced knee flexion angles, increased hip flexion angles, valgus collapse at the knee, increased hip internal rotation, and increased internal or external tibial rotation are frequently reported at the time of or just prior to ACL injury. Female athletes are at greater risk for sustaining an ACL injury compared to male athletes participating in soccer, basketball, rugby, and handball. Research has shown that comprehensive training programs can effectively “reprogram” the neuromuscular system to avoid potentially dangerous body mechanics and positions.

Keywords

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Knee Flexion Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cincinnati Sportsmedicine and Orthopaedic CenterCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.Cincinnati Sportsmedicine Research and Education FoundationCincinnatiUSA

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